Unit 2 – Flashcards with Answers

question
A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that brings about an unconditioned response. Through repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the a)neutral stimulus will come to be ignored. b)conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response. c)unconditioned response becomes its own stimulus. d)unconditioned response will become extinct.
answer
conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response.
question
Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is a)negative reinforcement. b)presentation punishment. c)response cost. d)satiation
answer
response cost.
question
Which of the following is a practical implication of contiguity theory? a)Use intermittent reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement. b)Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response. c)Use continuous reinforcement rather than intermittent reinforcement. d)Avoid the use of punishment whenever humanly possible.
answer
Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response.
question
A consequence is defined by Skinner as a reinforcer or a punisher depending on whether it a)is designed to promote desirable behavior or suppress undesirable behavior. b)is pleasurable or uncomfortable for the subject receiving the consequence. c)occurs antecedent to or as a consequence of the behavior. d)increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
answer
increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
question
During the first few days of class, Mr. Brackman noticed some isolated instances of minor misbehavior such as talking out of turn. His initial approach to dealing with this should probably be to use a)praise-and-ignore techniques. b)shaping c)response cost. d)prompting and cueing.
answer
praise-and-ignore techniques.
question
Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
answer
observable actions.
question
Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
answer
varied in price so that all students may be rewarded.
question
Lionel was humiliated when he forgot his lines in a play. Now he refuses to take part in any function of the speech class. Based on the behavioral principles discussed by Woolfolk, the best strategy for Lionel's teacher would be to
answer
bring Lionel back into class participation in small steps.
question
During music class Lisa enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, "Lisa, please...you sound like an owl in a torture chamber." Lisa turns bright red. The next week she feels ill when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an example of
answer
classical conditioning.
question
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be a)dependent upon reward. b)in a contiguous relationship. c)in a noncontiguous relationship. d)equivalent stimuli.
answer
in a contiguous relationship.
question
Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement? a)Fixed-interval b)Fixed-ratio c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer
Variable-ratio
question
Yancey turns on the water faucet to get a drink. What schedule of reinforcement typically prevails? a)Continuous b)Fixed-interval c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer
Continuous
question
In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener's operation and food, any time the can opener is used, the subject salivates. The conditioned response in this study is the
answer
salivation to the can opener.
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure a)can be effectively monitored by the teacher. should be eliminated as much as possible.b) c)has little effect on most misbehavior. d)may be both a positive and a negative influence.
answer
may be both a positive and a negative influence.
question
B. F. Skinner is to ________, as Ivan Pavlov is to ________.
answer
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
question
Mr. Saunders hates sending in his income tax forms each year and constantly worries that his return will be the "one" selected for auditing. Therefore, he completes the forms carefully and honestly in order to avoid a possible penalty, but he continues to worry about being audited. What reinforcement schedule is most likely to be involved?
answer
Variable-ratio
question
Ray's temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her "wits' end." Ray's mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
answer
extinction.
question
Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis? a)Reduces the need for expository presentations. b)Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal. c)Allows for creativity in student responses. d)Requires only minimal time to use.
answer
Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal.
question
Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by a)focusing on animal behavior to a much greater extent than on human behavior. b)dealing primarily with reflexive types of responses. c)treating learners as passive rather then active agents. d)focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
answer
focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
question
In order to understand the large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts, people must develop structures or patterns called a)levels b)mnemonics c)schemas d)propositions
answer
schemas
question
A student provides an explanation of why water evaporates, but his description leaves out some of the details the teacher provided, while including some new information. Cognitive theorists would attribute this to a)time decay. b)repression c)elaboration d)reconstruction
answer
reconstruction
question
Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves a)integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding. b)developing new strategies for performing various cognitive activities. c)generating ways to organize thoughts and actions in order to meet a goal. d)applying rules for the purpose of categorizing specific objects or ideas.
answer
integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding.
question
When Mr. Wilson wants his students to learn about a familiar concept and practice thinking skills at the same time, he should stress a)nonexamples of the concept. b)concept attainment. c)exemplar of the concept. d)positive instances of the concept.
answer
concept attainment.
question
When you mention "dogs," both Bethany and Ashley would picture collies. In relation to the concept "dog," what would the image of a collie be? a)Algorithm b)Heuristic c)Prototype d)Attribute
answer
Prototype
question
While taking his final exam, Jerry recalled one item of information that caused him to remember another piece of information related to the question. What phenomenon has he just experienced?
answer
Spread of activation
question
Megan tries to remember the address, 10 Anchor Street, by imagining a ten-dollar bill attached to the anchor of a ship. She is using a memory strategy called
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
The following statement is TRUE about the most recent version of the information processing system: a)There are five separate components to the memory system (sensory, short-term memory, executive memory, long-term memory, and schemas) b)Eposidic memory is another term for sensory memory. c)Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. d)Sensory memories first are stored in long-term memory before they are stored in working memory.
answer
Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory.
question
Propositional networks are defined most accurately as a)a process by which verbal information reaches short-term memory. b)the process by means of which information reaches the sensory register. c)a technique used to increase the capacity of short-term memory. d)the organization of information according to its meaning.
answer
the organization of information according to its meaning.
question
The basic purpose of chunking as a memory strategy is to a)reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory. b)increase the amount of information to be stored in the long-term memory. c)reduce the amount of time for processing information in long-term memory. d)increase the capacity of information in all of the sensory registers.
answer
reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory.
question
Because memories are organized in propositional networks, recall of one bit of information often a)leads to recall of another bit of information. b)blocks the recall of other information. c)requires specific, external memory cues. d)leads to the integration of organized patterns.
answer
leads to recall of another bit of information.
question
According to current cognitive theories, information may be lost from long-term memory in all of the following ways EXCEPT by a)time decay. b)substitution c)lack of use. d)interference
answer
substitution
question
Our ability to conserve something in working memory is most directly affected by the a)strength and intensity of the initial stimulus. b)reinforcement of information. c)perceptual factors that we apply to the stimulus. d)executive control processes.
answer
executive control processes.
question
What can teachers do to help their students develop an automated basic skill? a)Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback. b)Train students to use a variety of strategies for retrieving knowledge from long-term memory. c)Focus on executive control processes in order to guide the flow of information through students' information processing systems. d)Teach domain-specific strategies for solving problems and control processes for guiding knowledge.
answer
Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback.
question
Top-down processing is distinguished by its reliance on a a)assembly of elements into a meaningful pattern. b)understanding of the context of a situation. c)downward scanning of the eyes. d)search for familiar features or elements.
answer
understanding of the context of a situation.
question
Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test? a)In an educational psychology classroom b)In a small comfortable room with soft music playing c)In a very quiet area, such as a library d)In a familiar room such as a dorm room
answer
In an educational psychology classroom
question
Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of learners?
answer
Active
question
What you are thinking about right now is being held in what type of memory?
answer
Working
question
Mark can answer the physics problem because of patterns of knowledge stored in his long-term memory, which he did not intentionally try to learn. This situation involves Mark using his
answer
implicit memory.
question
Cliff is good at solving math problems, but has difficulty solving problems in his computer class. His problem-solving ability in math represents what type of knowledge?
answer
Domain-specific
question
Stacey is trying to learn the abbreviations and names for the chemical elements, such as Au (gold). He connects the Au with a mental picture of Auric Goldfinger, the villain in a James Bond novel. This is an example of using what learning strategy?
answer
Keyword
question
Maria has excellent study habits. She seems to know just what to review and how long to spend on each part of every course. Maria is applying what type of knowledge?
answer
Conditional
question
In order to avoid confusing entomology (the study of insects) with etymology (the study of the history of words), Vicky associates the sound "en" of entomology with the sound "in" of insects. What specific type of mnemonic is she using?
answer
Keyword
question
What type of knowledge do experts have that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities?
answer
Procedural
question
When we intentionally try to learn something new, we are involving what type of long-term memory?
answer
Explicit memory
question
Alec still remembers how to touch-type, even though it has been three years since he has practiced. The memory system most directly involved here is
answer
procedural.
question
A photographer shoots a flashbulb directly into your eyes. For the next few seconds, all you can see are big blue dots everywhere you look. What type of memory is most directly involved in this phenomenon?
answer
Sensory
question
Anderson (2010) recently proposed that some items from long-term memory may be forgotten because:
answer
with age, some neurons simply die.
question
Research has shown that the capacity of the working memory is limited to about how many chunks?
answer
5-9
question
Noah counted the legs on a bug and came up with eight. He then decided the bug was an arachnid (spider) because an arachnid has eight legs. His decision was based upon what aspect of concept learning?
answer
Defining attribute
question
Greg ponders over a math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes pass as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg's solution best exemplifies a)insight b)transfer c)problem representation. d)functional fixedness.
answer
insight
question
Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of a heuristic? a)Guaranteed solution b)Analogical thinking c)Exhaustive d)Domain specific
answer
Analogical thinking
question
Which one of the following is the first step in the KWL reading strategy? a)Asking "which information is most likely to be on the test?"b)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?" c)Asking "what do I want to know?" d)Asking "which mnemonic will help me the most in this situation?" e)Asking "what I have I learning?"
answer
Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"
question
Gloria thinks about the solution to a problem regarding welfare in her American Problems course. She asks herself what she needs to know in order to solve the problem. She tries to think about the problem in different and, possibly, creative ways. She is then able to clarify the problem and propose a potentially useful solution. The aspect of problem solving that Gloria's strategy exemplifies is a)functional fixedness. b)response set. c)transfer d)flexibility
answer
flexibility
question
One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must a)understand that ability is more important than effort. b)be able to work independently. c)value and care about learning. d)have speed of learning.
answer
value and care about learning.
question
Michael was asked to devise as many uses for a brick as he could. After taking the assignment home to work on further, he came up with over 30 ideas, many of which were not proposed by any other student. All of Michael's ideas dealt with using a brick to break things. In what aspect of creativity proposed by Torrence is Michael lacking? Fluency or flexibility
answer
Flexibility
question
The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of
answer
a heuristic.
question
The stage of transfer for strategies in which the teacher should provide new problems that can be solved with the same strategy is the stage of
answer
transfer
question
Rory learned about divergent rays in physics class when he was studying the effects of lenses. Later, in his psychology class, he immediately understood the concept of "divergent thinking." What learning experience did Rory have?
answer
General transfer
question
Hernando looked at the problem and exclaimed: "Aha! This is just like when Ahab was obsessed with the great white whale, Moby Dick!" This comment is the result of
answer
analogical thinking.
question
Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be inefficient due to a)specific rather than general transfer taking place. b)the irrelevance of the subject. c)general rather than specific transfer taking place. d)the impracticality of disciplining mental processes.
answer
specific rather than general transfer taking place.
question
Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves a)using analogical reasoning and heuristics. b)beginning at the goal and moving backwards to the unsolved initial problem. c)distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals. d)limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem.
answer
distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals.
question
The eighth grade is preparing for its annual "School Scam Skit," in which students parody amusing school events during the year. Alonzo, the class President, discovers that the class has mistakenly sold 500 tickets for an auditorium with a seating capacity of only 200. The auditorium is not available for any other night, and the class does not have the funds available to rent a suitable room elsewhere. Numerous possible solutions may exist, but the class is feeling panicked. The class officers are meeting in order to attempt to find a solution to this problem. What type of cognitive approach is each class officer using? checking the calendar to see if the program could be held on two consecutive nights; (2) checking with other junior or senior high schools in the community to find out about availability of their facilities; and (3) checking on the possibility of using the high school's football stadium to construct a stage and lighting system for an outdoor program.
answer
working backwards
question
A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)
answer
algorithm
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE? a)Students' metacognitive skills are fixed because they are aligned to their learning style. b)Children in second grade are too young to engage in self-reflection. c)Very young children are better metacognitve thinkers than adolescents. d)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
answer
Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
question
Research findings suggest that students who tend to benefit most from cooperative learning experiences are those who a-receive individual tutoring from others b-are shy or introverted. c-have high goal expectations. d-are active in explaining things to others.
answer
are active in explaining things to others.
question
Cooperative learning involves the following: a-Extrinsic rewards, elaboration, and autonomy b-Cognitive flexibility, competition, and self-respect c-Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation d-Shared values, lack of conflict, and creativity
answer
Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation
question
The principal characteristics of constructivist teaching are complex, real-life learning environments and a-social negotiation and shared responsibility. b-inquiry methods and discovery strategies. c-guided discovery and feedback. d-testing hypotheses and forming conclusions.
answer
social negotiation and shared responsibility.
question
Vygotsky's notion that learning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural setting is consistent with a-sociological learning. b-relativistic learning. c-guided learning. d-situated learning.
answer
situated learning.
question
Sociological constructivists are concerned primarily with how a-individuals create knowledge. b-cognition creates culture. c-cultural context explains learning. d-public knowledge is created.
answer
public knowledge is created.
question
Piaget's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism? a-Logically directed b-Internally directed c-Externally directed d-Both externally and internally directed
answer
Externally directed
question
Vygotsky's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism?
answer
Both externally and internally directed
question
Which one of the following students is playing the role of reflector in a cooperative learning group? a-Helen is responsible for keeping the noise level of the group at a reasonable pitch. b-Amanda makes certain that the questions of all group members are asked and answered. c-Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal. d-Lawrence solicits equal participation of group members and restrains dominance by any group member.
answer
Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal.
question
The guided inquiry model developed by Magnusson, Palincsar, and their colleagues involves both firsthand investigations and a-pattern investigations. b-discovery methods. c-secondhand investigations. d-sequences of inquiry.
answer
secondhand investigations.
question
Marible was assigned the role of making sure her group understands the learning task. Her role is referred to as the a-checker. b-reflector c-quiet captain. d-gatekeeper.
answer
checker.
question
Which one of the following behaviors is one of the teacher's roles in problem-based learning? a-Discourage students to conduct experiments. b-Demonstrate the steps in scientific investigations. c-Avoid assisting groups and independent investigations. d-Help students to reflect on their investigations.
answer
Help students to reflect on their investigations.
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the role of expectations in social cognitive theory? a-Although expectations are important, they are too difficult to measure to be concerned about in everyday classroom activities. b-In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura's social cognitive theory. c-Expectations plaid a large role in Bandura's social learning theory, but do not play a key role in his social cognitive theory. d-According to Bandura's theory, values are more important than expectations for understanding students' motivation.
answer
In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura's social cognitive theory.
question
Bandura challenged and expanded his early work on behavioral conceptions of learning by focusing on a-acquisition of knowledge. b-observable performances. c-principles of reinforcement and punishment. d-social learning theory.
answer
social learning theory.
question
Zimmerman's model of self-regulated learning ends the cycle with a-a plan to engage in more cooperative learning. b-the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance. c-setting new goals for learning tasks. d-the use of means-ends problem solving.
answer
the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance.
question
According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal causality? a-Personal factors b-Environmental factors c-Social factors d-Behavioral factors
answer
Personal factors
question
Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that students can learn from observing others complete a task? a-Social cognitive theory b-Constructivist theoretical perspectives c-Expectancy-value theory d-Behavioral theory
answer
Social cognitive theory
question
Mr. Jacoby is very effective at encouraging his students to become self-regulated learners because he includes the following in his teaching: a-Opportunities for students to develop their creative abilities b-Minimal feedback so that his students can evaluate their own work c-Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning d-Cooperative learning activities
answer
Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning
question
The following statement is true about the relation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. a-There is a strong relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem only for non-academic tasks. There is no relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem for academic tasks. b-There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. c-There is a strong positive correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem increases. d-There is a strong negative correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem decreases.
answer
There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem.
question
What are the steps involved in self-regulated learning? a-Self-efficacy, strategy use, volition b-Teaching, practice, goal-setting, reflective task analysis c-Modeling, reflection, self-evaluation, devising plans d-Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
answer
Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
question
The concept of self-determination is an important influence in what view of motivation? a-Humanistic b-Behavioral c-Social learning d-Cognitive
answer
Humanistic
question
In Maslow's hierarchy, self-esteem is considered to be what type of need? a-Self-actualization b-Deficiency c-Being d-Proficiency
answer
Deficiency
question
An entity view of ability is consistent with what type of goals? a-Extrinsic b-Work-avoidance c-Performance d-Intrinsic
answer
Performance
question
A student's reason for acting is called a-locus of causality. b-intrinsic motivation. c-extrinsic motivation. d-self-determined.
answer
locus of causality.
question
As need for achievement increases in spite of fear of failure, what type of student will be motivated to learn? a-Failure-accepting b-Socially-oriented c-Failure-avoiding d-Mastery-oriented
answer
Mastery-oriented
question
From the pioneering work of Yerkes and Dodson (1905) to present-day research results, what is the correlation between virtually every aspect of achievement and a wide variety of anxiety measures? a-Zero b-Negative c-Moderately positive d-Positive
answer
Negative
question
According to behavioral theory of motivation, students are motivated primarily by a(n) a-inherent need to understand what they are learning. b-desire for gaining fulfillment for their accomplishments. c-desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior. d-need for social recognition and status.
answer
desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior.
question
Individuals are naturally motivated to learn by a-seductive details. b-anxiety c-feedback and goal acceptance. d-performance goals.
answer
feedback and goal acceptance.
question
Students who demonstrate "learned helplessness" are likely to a-find ways to attribute their failures to others. b-focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
answer
focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
question
Harry is apathetic and certain that he is not able to do the work. He makes poor marks in school and is not inclined to seek help. According to attribution theory, Harry is typical of students who attribute their failures to causes that are a-internal, stable, and controllable. b-external, unstable, and uncontrollable. c-internal, stable, and controllable. d-internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
answer
internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
question
Sally sets unrealistically high goals for herself but is unsure about her abilities. Woolfolk would be likely to label Sally as a-mastery-oriented. b-failure-avoiding.
answer
failure-avoiding
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question
A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that brings about an unconditioned response. Through repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the a)neutral stimulus will come to be ignored. b)conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response. c)unconditioned response becomes its own stimulus. d)unconditioned response will become extinct.
answer
conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response.
question
Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is a)negative reinforcement. b)presentation punishment. c)response cost. d)satiation
answer
response cost.
question
Which of the following is a practical implication of contiguity theory? a)Use intermittent reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement. b)Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response. c)Use continuous reinforcement rather than intermittent reinforcement. d)Avoid the use of punishment whenever humanly possible.
answer
Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response.
question
A consequence is defined by Skinner as a reinforcer or a punisher depending on whether it a)is designed to promote desirable behavior or suppress undesirable behavior. b)is pleasurable or uncomfortable for the subject receiving the consequence. c)occurs antecedent to or as a consequence of the behavior. d)increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
answer
increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
question
During the first few days of class, Mr. Brackman noticed some isolated instances of minor misbehavior such as talking out of turn. His initial approach to dealing with this should probably be to use a)praise-and-ignore techniques. b)shaping c)response cost. d)prompting and cueing.
answer
praise-and-ignore techniques.
question
Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
answer
observable actions.
question
Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
answer
varied in price so that all students may be rewarded.
question
Lionel was humiliated when he forgot his lines in a play. Now he refuses to take part in any function of the speech class. Based on the behavioral principles discussed by Woolfolk, the best strategy for Lionel's teacher would be to
answer
bring Lionel back into class participation in small steps.
question
During music class Lisa enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, "Lisa, please...you sound like an owl in a torture chamber." Lisa turns bright red. The next week she feels ill when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an example of
answer
classical conditioning.
question
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be a)dependent upon reward. b)in a contiguous relationship. c)in a noncontiguous relationship. d)equivalent stimuli.
answer
in a contiguous relationship.
question
Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement? a)Fixed-interval b)Fixed-ratio c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer
Variable-ratio
question
Yancey turns on the water faucet to get a drink. What schedule of reinforcement typically prevails? a)Continuous b)Fixed-interval c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer
Continuous
question
In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener's operation and food, any time the can opener is used, the subject salivates. The conditioned response in this study is the
answer
salivation to the can opener.
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure a)can be effectively monitored by the teacher. should be eliminated as much as possible.b) c)has little effect on most misbehavior. d)may be both a positive and a negative influence.
answer
may be both a positive and a negative influence.
question
B. F. Skinner is to ________, as Ivan Pavlov is to ________.
answer
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
question
Mr. Saunders hates sending in his income tax forms each year and constantly worries that his return will be the "one" selected for auditing. Therefore, he completes the forms carefully and honestly in order to avoid a possible penalty, but he continues to worry about being audited. What reinforcement schedule is most likely to be involved?
answer
Variable-ratio
question
Ray's temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her "wits' end." Ray's mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
answer
extinction.
question
Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis? a)Reduces the need for expository presentations. b)Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal. c)Allows for creativity in student responses. d)Requires only minimal time to use.
answer
Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal.
question
Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by a)focusing on animal behavior to a much greater extent than on human behavior. b)dealing primarily with reflexive types of responses. c)treating learners as passive rather then active agents. d)focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
answer
focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
question
In order to understand the large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts, people must develop structures or patterns called a)levels b)mnemonics c)schemas d)propositions
answer
schemas
question
A student provides an explanation of why water evaporates, but his description leaves out some of the details the teacher provided, while including some new information. Cognitive theorists would attribute this to a)time decay. b)repression c)elaboration d)reconstruction
answer
reconstruction
question
Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves a)integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding. b)developing new strategies for performing various cognitive activities. c)generating ways to organize thoughts and actions in order to meet a goal. d)applying rules for the purpose of categorizing specific objects or ideas.
answer
integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding.
question
When Mr. Wilson wants his students to learn about a familiar concept and practice thinking skills at the same time, he should stress a)nonexamples of the concept. b)concept attainment. c)exemplar of the concept. d)positive instances of the concept.
answer
concept attainment.
question
When you mention "dogs," both Bethany and Ashley would picture collies. In relation to the concept "dog," what would the image of a collie be? a)Algorithm b)Heuristic c)Prototype d)Attribute
answer
Prototype
question
While taking his final exam, Jerry recalled one item of information that caused him to remember another piece of information related to the question. What phenomenon has he just experienced?
answer
Spread of activation
question
Megan tries to remember the address, 10 Anchor Street, by imagining a ten-dollar bill attached to the anchor of a ship. She is using a memory strategy called
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
The following statement is TRUE about the most recent version of the information processing system: a)There are five separate components to the memory system (sensory, short-term memory, executive memory, long-term memory, and schemas) b)Eposidic memory is another term for sensory memory. c)Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. d)Sensory memories first are stored in long-term memory before they are stored in working memory.
answer
Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory.
question
Propositional networks are defined most accurately as a)a process by which verbal information reaches short-term memory. b)the process by means of which information reaches the sensory register. c)a technique used to increase the capacity of short-term memory. d)the organization of information according to its meaning.
answer
the organization of information according to its meaning.
question
The basic purpose of chunking as a memory strategy is to a)reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory. b)increase the amount of information to be stored in the long-term memory. c)reduce the amount of time for processing information in long-term memory. d)increase the capacity of information in all of the sensory registers.
answer
reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory.
question
Because memories are organized in propositional networks, recall of one bit of information often a)leads to recall of another bit of information. b)blocks the recall of other information. c)requires specific, external memory cues. d)leads to the integration of organized patterns.
answer
leads to recall of another bit of information.
question
According to current cognitive theories, information may be lost from long-term memory in all of the following ways EXCEPT by a)time decay. b)substitution c)lack of use. d)interference
answer
substitution
question
Our ability to conserve something in working memory is most directly affected by the a)strength and intensity of the initial stimulus. b)reinforcement of information. c)perceptual factors that we apply to the stimulus. d)executive control processes.
answer
executive control processes.
question
What can teachers do to help their students develop an automated basic skill? a)Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback. b)Train students to use a variety of strategies for retrieving knowledge from long-term memory. c)Focus on executive control processes in order to guide the flow of information through students' information processing systems. d)Teach domain-specific strategies for solving problems and control processes for guiding knowledge.
answer
Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback.
question
Top-down processing is distinguished by its reliance on a a)assembly of elements into a meaningful pattern. b)understanding of the context of a situation. c)downward scanning of the eyes. d)search for familiar features or elements.
answer
understanding of the context of a situation.
question
Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test? a)In an educational psychology classroom b)In a small comfortable room with soft music playing c)In a very quiet area, such as a library d)In a familiar room such as a dorm room
answer
In an educational psychology classroom
question
Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of learners?
answer
Active
question
What you are thinking about right now is being held in what type of memory?
answer
Working
question
Mark can answer the physics problem because of patterns of knowledge stored in his long-term memory, which he did not intentionally try to learn. This situation involves Mark using his
answer
implicit memory.
question
Cliff is good at solving math problems, but has difficulty solving problems in his computer class. His problem-solving ability in math represents what type of knowledge?
answer
Domain-specific
question
Stacey is trying to learn the abbreviations and names for the chemical elements, such as Au (gold). He connects the Au with a mental picture of Auric Goldfinger, the villain in a James Bond novel. This is an example of using what learning strategy?
answer
Keyword
question
Maria has excellent study habits. She seems to know just what to review and how long to spend on each part of every course. Maria is applying what type of knowledge?
answer
Conditional
question
In order to avoid confusing entomology (the study of insects) with etymology (the study of the history of words), Vicky associates the sound "en" of entomology with the sound "in" of insects. What specific type of mnemonic is she using?
answer
Keyword
question
What type of knowledge do experts have that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities?
answer
Procedural
question
When we intentionally try to learn something new, we are involving what type of long-term memory?
answer
Explicit memory
question
Alec still remembers how to touch-type, even though it has been three years since he has practiced. The memory system most directly involved here is
answer
procedural.
question
A photographer shoots a flashbulb directly into your eyes. For the next few seconds, all you can see are big blue dots everywhere you look. What type of memory is most directly involved in this phenomenon?
answer
Sensory
question
Anderson (2010) recently proposed that some items from long-term memory may be forgotten because:
answer
with age, some neurons simply die.
question
Research has shown that the capacity of the working memory is limited to about how many chunks?
answer
5-9
question
Noah counted the legs on a bug and came up with eight. He then decided the bug was an arachnid (spider) because an arachnid has eight legs. His decision was based upon what aspect of concept learning?
answer
Defining attribute
question
Greg ponders over a math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes pass as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg's solution best exemplifies a)insight b)transfer c)problem representation. d)functional fixedness.
answer
insight
question
Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of a heuristic? a)Guaranteed solution b)Analogical thinking c)Exhaustive d)Domain specific
answer
Analogical thinking
question
Which one of the following is the first step in the KWL reading strategy? a)Asking "which information is most likely to be on the test?"b)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?" c)Asking "what do I want to know?" d)Asking "which mnemonic will help me the most in this situation?" e)Asking "what I have I learning?"
answer
Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"
question
Gloria thinks about the solution to a problem regarding welfare in her American Problems course. She asks herself what she needs to know in order to solve the problem. She tries to think about the problem in different and, possibly, creative ways. She is then able to clarify the problem and propose a potentially useful solution. The aspect of problem solving that Gloria's strategy exemplifies is a)functional fixedness. b)response set. c)transfer d)flexibility
answer
flexibility
question
One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must a)understand that ability is more important than effort. b)be able to work independently. c)value and care about learning. d)have speed of learning.
answer
value and care about learning.
question
Michael was asked to devise as many uses for a brick as he could. After taking the assignment home to work on further, he came up with over 30 ideas, many of which were not proposed by any other student. All of Michael's ideas dealt with using a brick to break things. In what aspect of creativity proposed by Torrence is Michael lacking? Fluency or flexibility
answer
Flexibility
question
The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of
answer
a heuristic.
question
The stage of transfer for strategies in which the teacher should provide new problems that can be solved with the same strategy is the stage of
answer
transfer
question
Rory learned about divergent rays in physics class when he was studying the effects of lenses. Later, in his psychology class, he immediately understood the concept of "divergent thinking." What learning experience did Rory have?
answer
General transfer
question
Hernando looked at the problem and exclaimed: "Aha! This is just like when Ahab was obsessed with the great white whale, Moby Dick!" This comment is the result of
answer
analogical thinking.
question
Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be inefficient due to a)specific rather than general transfer taking place. b)the irrelevance of the subject. c)general rather than specific transfer taking place. d)the impracticality of disciplining mental processes.
answer
specific rather than general transfer taking place.
question
Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves a)using analogical reasoning and heuristics. b)beginning at the goal and moving backwards to the unsolved initial problem. c)distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals. d)limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem.
answer
distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals.
question
The eighth grade is preparing for its annual "School Scam Skit," in which students parody amusing school events during the year. Alonzo, the class President, discovers that the class has mistakenly sold 500 tickets for an auditorium with a seating capacity of only 200. The auditorium is not available for any other night, and the class does not have the funds available to rent a suitable room elsewhere. Numerous possible solutions may exist, but the class is feeling panicked. The class officers are meeting in order to attempt to find a solution to this problem. What type of cognitive approach is each class officer using? checking the calendar to see if the program could be held on two consecutive nights; (2) checking with other junior or senior high schools in the community to find out about availability of their facilities; and (3) checking on the possibility of using the high school's football stadium to construct a stage and lighting system for an outdoor program.
answer
working backwards
question
A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)
answer
algorithm
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE? a)Students' metacognitive skills are fixed because they are aligned to their learning style. b)Children in second grade are too young to engage in self-reflection. c)Very young children are better metacognitve thinkers than adolescents. d)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
answer
Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
question
Research findings suggest that students who tend to benefit most from cooperative learning experiences are those who a-receive individual tutoring from others b-are shy or introverted. c-have high goal expectations. d-are active in explaining things to others.
answer
are active in explaining things to others.
question
Cooperative learning involves the following: a-Extrinsic rewards, elaboration, and autonomy b-Cognitive flexibility, competition, and self-respect c-Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation d-Shared values, lack of conflict, and creativity
answer
Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation
question
The principal characteristics of constructivist teaching are complex, real-life learning environments and a-social negotiation and shared responsibility. b-inquiry methods and discovery strategies. c-guided discovery and feedback. d-testing hypotheses and forming conclusions.
answer
social negotiation and shared responsibility.
question
Vygotsky's notion that learning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural setting is consistent with a-sociological learning. b-relativistic learning. c-guided learning. d-situated learning.
answer
situated learning.
question
Sociological constructivists are concerned primarily with how a-individuals create knowledge. b-cognition creates culture. c-cultural context explains learning. d-public knowledge is created.
answer
public knowledge is created.
question
Piaget's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism? a-Logically directed b-Internally directed c-Externally directed d-Both externally and internally directed
answer
Externally directed
question
Vygotsky's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism?
answer
Both externally and internally directed
question
Which one of the following students is playing the role of reflector in a cooperative learning group? a-Helen is responsible for keeping the noise level of the group at a reasonable pitch. b-Amanda makes certain that the questions of all group members are asked and answered. c-Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal. d-Lawrence solicits equal participation of group members and restrains dominance by any group member.
answer
Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal.
question
The guided inquiry model developed by Magnusson, Palincsar, and their colleagues involves both firsthand investigations and a-pattern investigations. b-discovery methods. c-secondhand investigations. d-sequences of inquiry.
answer
secondhand investigations.
question
Marible was assigned the role of making sure her group understands the learning task. Her role is referred to as the a-checker. b-reflector c-quiet captain. d-gatekeeper.
answer
checker.
question
Which one of the following behaviors is one of the teacher's roles in problem-based learning? a-Discourage students to conduct experiments. b-Demonstrate the steps in scientific investigations. c-Avoid assisting groups and independent investigations. d-Help students to reflect on their investigations.
answer
Help students to reflect on their investigations.
question
Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the role of expectations in social cognitive theory? a-Although expectations are important, they are too difficult to measure to be concerned about in everyday classroom activities. b-In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura's social cognitive theory. c-Expectations plaid a large role in Bandura's social learning theory, but do not play a key role in his social cognitive theory. d-According to Bandura's theory, values are more important than expectations for understanding students' motivation.
answer
In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura's social cognitive theory.
question
Bandura challenged and expanded his early work on behavioral conceptions of learning by focusing on a-acquisition of knowledge. b-observable performances. c-principles of reinforcement and punishment. d-social learning theory.
answer
social learning theory.
question
Zimmerman's model of self-regulated learning ends the cycle with a-a plan to engage in more cooperative learning. b-the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance. c-setting new goals for learning tasks. d-the use of means-ends problem solving.
answer
the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance.
question
According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal causality? a-Personal factors b-Environmental factors c-Social factors d-Behavioral factors
answer
Personal factors
question
Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that students can learn from observing others complete a task? a-Social cognitive theory b-Constructivist theoretical perspectives c-Expectancy-value theory d-Behavioral theory
answer
Social cognitive theory
question
Mr. Jacoby is very effective at encouraging his students to become self-regulated learners because he includes the following in his teaching: a-Opportunities for students to develop their creative abilities b-Minimal feedback so that his students can evaluate their own work c-Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning d-Cooperative learning activities
answer
Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning
question
The following statement is true about the relation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. a-There is a strong relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem only for non-academic tasks. There is no relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem for academic tasks. b-There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. c-There is a strong positive correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem increases. d-There is a strong negative correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem decreases.
answer
There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem.
question
What are the steps involved in self-regulated learning? a-Self-efficacy, strategy use, volition b-Teaching, practice, goal-setting, reflective task analysis c-Modeling, reflection, self-evaluation, devising plans d-Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
answer
Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
question
The concept of self-determination is an important influence in what view of motivation? a-Humanistic b-Behavioral c-Social learning d-Cognitive
answer
Humanistic
question
In Maslow's hierarchy, self-esteem is considered to be what type of need? a-Self-actualization b-Deficiency c-Being d-Proficiency
answer
Deficiency
question
An entity view of ability is consistent with what type of goals? a-Extrinsic b-Work-avoidance c-Performance d-Intrinsic
answer
Performance
question
A student's reason for acting is called a-locus of causality. b-intrinsic motivation. c-extrinsic motivation. d-self-determined.
answer
locus of causality.
question
As need for achievement increases in spite of fear of failure, what type of student will be motivated to learn? a-Failure-accepting b-Socially-oriented c-Failure-avoiding d-Mastery-oriented
answer
Mastery-oriented
question
From the pioneering work of Yerkes and Dodson (1905) to present-day research results, what is the correlation between virtually every aspect of achievement and a wide variety of anxiety measures? a-Zero b-Negative c-Moderately positive d-Positive
answer
Negative
question
According to behavioral theory of motivation, students are motivated primarily by a(n) a-inherent need to understand what they are learning. b-desire for gaining fulfillment for their accomplishments. c-desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior. d-need for social recognition and status.
answer
desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior.
question
Individuals are naturally motivated to learn by a-seductive details. b-anxiety c-feedback and goal acceptance. d-performance goals.
answer
feedback and goal acceptance.
question
Students who demonstrate "learned helplessness" are likely to a-find ways to attribute their failures to others. b-focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
answer
focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
question
Harry is apathetic and certain that he is not able to do the work. He makes poor marks in school and is not inclined to seek help. According to attribution theory, Harry is typical of students who attribute their failures to causes that are a-internal, stable, and controllable. b-external, unstable, and uncontrollable. c-internal, stable, and controllable. d-internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
answer
internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
question
Sally sets unrealistically high goals for herself but is unsure about her abilities. Woolfolk would be likely to label Sally as a-mastery-oriented. b-failure-avoiding.
answer
failure-avoiding
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