Unit 2 – Flashcards with Answers

question

A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that brings about an unconditioned response. Through repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the a)neutral stimulus will come to be ignored. b)conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response. c)unconditioned response becomes its own stimulus. d)unconditioned response will become extinct.
answer

conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response.
question

Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is a)negative reinforcement. b)presentation punishment. c)response cost. d)satiation
answer

response cost.
question

Which of the following is a practical implication of contiguity theory? a)Use intermittent reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement. b)Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response. c)Use continuous reinforcement rather than intermittent reinforcement. d)Avoid the use of punishment whenever humanly possible.
answer

Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response.
question

A consequence is defined by Skinner as a reinforcer or a punisher depending on whether it a)is designed to promote desirable behavior or suppress undesirable behavior. b)is pleasurable or uncomfortable for the subject receiving the consequence. c)occurs antecedent to or as a consequence of the behavior. d)increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
answer

increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
question

During the first few days of class, Mr. Brackman noticed some isolated instances of minor misbehavior such as talking out of turn. His initial approach to dealing with this should probably be to use a)praise-and-ignore techniques. b)shaping c)response cost. d)prompting and cueing.
answer

praise-and-ignore techniques.
question

Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
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observable actions.
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Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
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varied in price so that all students may be rewarded.
question

Lionel was humiliated when he forgot his lines in a play. Now he refuses to take part in any function of the speech class. Based on the behavioral principles discussed by Woolfolk, the best strategy for Lionel’s teacher would be to
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bring Lionel back into class participation in small steps.
question

During music class Lisa enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, “Lisa, please…you sound like an owl in a torture chamber.” Lisa turns bright red. The next week she feels ill when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an example of
answer

classical conditioning.
question

In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be a)dependent upon reward. b)in a contiguous relationship. c)in a noncontiguous relationship. d)equivalent stimuli.
answer

in a contiguous relationship.
question

Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement? a)Fixed-interval b)Fixed-ratio c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer

Variable-ratio
question

Yancey turns on the water faucet to get a drink. What schedule of reinforcement typically prevails? a)Continuous b)Fixed-interval c)Variable-interval d)Variable-ratio
answer

Continuous
question

In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener’s operation and food, any time the can opener is used, the subject salivates. The conditioned response in this study is the
answer

salivation to the can opener.
question

Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure a)can be effectively monitored by the teacher. should be eliminated as much as possible.b) c)has little effect on most misbehavior. d)may be both a positive and a negative influence.
answer

may be both a positive and a negative influence.
question

B. F. Skinner is to ________, as Ivan Pavlov is to ________.
answer

operant conditioning; classical conditioning
question

Mr. Saunders hates sending in his income tax forms each year and constantly worries that his return will be the “one” selected for auditing. Therefore, he completes the forms carefully and honestly in order to avoid a possible penalty, but he continues to worry about being audited. What reinforcement schedule is most likely to be involved?
answer

Variable-ratio
question

Ray’s temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her “wits’ end.” Ray’s mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
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extinction.
question

Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis? a)Reduces the need for expository presentations. b)Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal. c)Allows for creativity in student responses. d)Requires only minimal time to use.
answer

Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal.
question

Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by a)focusing on animal behavior to a much greater extent than on human behavior. b)dealing primarily with reflexive types of responses. c)treating learners as passive rather then active agents. d)focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
answer

focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
question

In order to understand the large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts, people must develop structures or patterns called a)levels b)mnemonics c)schemas d)propositions
answer

schemas
question

A student provides an explanation of why water evaporates, but his description leaves out some of the details the teacher provided, while including some new information. Cognitive theorists would attribute this to a)time decay. b)repression c)elaboration d)reconstruction
answer

reconstruction
question

Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves a)integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding. b)developing new strategies for performing various cognitive activities. c)generating ways to organize thoughts and actions in order to meet a goal. d)applying rules for the purpose of categorizing specific objects or ideas.
answer

integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding.
question

When Mr. Wilson wants his students to learn about a familiar concept and practice thinking skills at the same time, he should stress a)nonexamples of the concept. b)concept attainment. c)exemplar of the concept. d)positive instances of the concept.
answer

concept attainment.
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When you mention “dogs,” both Bethany and Ashley would picture collies. In relation to the concept “dog,” what would the image of a collie be? a)Algorithm b)Heuristic c)Prototype d)Attribute
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Prototype
question

While taking his final exam, Jerry recalled one item of information that caused him to remember another piece of information related to the question. What phenomenon has he just experienced?
answer

Spread of activation
question

Megan tries to remember the address, 10 Anchor Street, by imagining a ten-dollar bill attached to the anchor of a ship. She is using a memory strategy called
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elaborative rehearsal.
question

The following statement is TRUE about the most recent version of the information processing system: a)There are five separate components to the memory system (sensory, short-term memory, executive memory, long-term memory, and schemas) b)Eposidic memory is another term for sensory memory. c)Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. d)Sensory memories first are stored in long-term memory before they are stored in working memory.
answer

Attention plays a key role in the sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory.
question

Propositional networks are defined most accurately as a)a process by which verbal information reaches short-term memory. b)the process by means of which information reaches the sensory register. c)a technique used to increase the capacity of short-term memory. d)the organization of information according to its meaning.
answer

the organization of information according to its meaning.
question

The basic purpose of chunking as a memory strategy is to a)reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory. b)increase the amount of information to be stored in the long-term memory. c)reduce the amount of time for processing information in long-term memory. d)increase the capacity of information in all of the sensory registers.
answer

reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory.
question

Because memories are organized in propositional networks, recall of one bit of information often a)leads to recall of another bit of information. b)blocks the recall of other information. c)requires specific, external memory cues. d)leads to the integration of organized patterns.
answer

leads to recall of another bit of information.
question

According to current cognitive theories, information may be lost from long-term memory in all of the following ways EXCEPT by a)time decay. b)substitution c)lack of use. d)interference
answer

substitution
question

Our ability to conserve something in working memory is most directly affected by the a)strength and intensity of the initial stimulus. b)reinforcement of information. c)perceptual factors that we apply to the stimulus. d)executive control processes.
answer

executive control processes.
question

What can teachers do to help their students develop an automated basic skill? a)Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback. b)Train students to use a variety of strategies for retrieving knowledge from long-term memory. c)Focus on executive control processes in order to guide the flow of information through students’ information processing systems. d)Teach domain-specific strategies for solving problems and control processes for guiding knowledge.
answer

Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback.
question

Top-down processing is distinguished by its reliance on a a)assembly of elements into a meaningful pattern. b)understanding of the context of a situation. c)downward scanning of the eyes. d)search for familiar features or elements.
answer

understanding of the context of a situation.
question

Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test? a)In an educational psychology classroom b)In a small comfortable room with soft music playing c)In a very quiet area, such as a library d)In a familiar room such as a dorm room
answer

In an educational psychology classroom
question

Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of learners?
answer

Active
question

What you are thinking about right now is being held in what type of memory?
answer

Working
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Mark can answer the physics problem because of patterns of knowledge stored in his long-term memory, which he did not intentionally try to learn. This situation involves Mark using his
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implicit memory.
question

Cliff is good at solving math problems, but has difficulty solving problems in his computer class. His problem-solving ability in math represents what type of knowledge?
answer

Domain-specific
question

Stacey is trying to learn the abbreviations and names for the chemical elements, such as Au (gold). He connects the Au with a mental picture of Auric Goldfinger, the villain in a James Bond novel. This is an example of using what learning strategy?
answer

Keyword
question

Maria has excellent study habits. She seems to know just what to review and how long to spend on each part of every course. Maria is applying what type of knowledge?
answer

Conditional
question

In order to avoid confusing entomology (the study of insects) with etymology (the study of the history of words), Vicky associates the sound “en” of entomology with the sound “in” of insects. What specific type of mnemonic is she using?
answer

Keyword
question

What type of knowledge do experts have that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities?
answer

Procedural
question

When we intentionally try to learn something new, we are involving what type of long-term memory?
answer

Explicit memory
question

Alec still remembers how to touch-type, even though it has been three years since he has practiced. The memory system most directly involved here is
answer

procedural.
question

A photographer shoots a flashbulb directly into your eyes. For the next few seconds, all you can see are big blue dots everywhere you look. What type of memory is most directly involved in this phenomenon?
answer

Sensory
question

Anderson (2010) recently proposed that some items from long-term memory may be forgotten because:
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with age, some neurons simply die.
question

Research has shown that the capacity of the working memory is limited to about how many chunks?
answer

5-9
question

Noah counted the legs on a bug and came up with eight. He then decided the bug was an arachnid (spider) because an arachnid has eight legs. His decision was based upon what aspect of concept learning?
answer

Defining attribute
question

Greg ponders over a math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes pass as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg’s solution best exemplifies a)insight b)transfer c)problem representation. d)functional fixedness.
answer

insight
question

Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of a heuristic? a)Guaranteed solution b)Analogical thinking c)Exhaustive d)Domain specific
answer

Analogical thinking
question

Which one of the following is the first step in the KWL reading strategy? a)Asking “which information is most likely to be on the test?”b)Asking “what do I already know about this subject?” c)Asking “what do I want to know?” d)Asking “which mnemonic will help me the most in this situation?” e)Asking “what I have I learning?”
answer

Asking “what do I already know about this subject?”
question

Gloria thinks about the solution to a problem regarding welfare in her American Problems course. She asks herself what she needs to know in order to solve the problem. She tries to think about the problem in different and, possibly, creative ways. She is then able to clarify the problem and propose a potentially useful solution. The aspect of problem solving that Gloria’s strategy exemplifies is a)functional fixedness. b)response set. c)transfer d)flexibility
answer

flexibility
question

One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must a)understand that ability is more important than effort. b)be able to work independently. c)value and care about learning. d)have speed of learning.
answer

value and care about learning.
question

Michael was asked to devise as many uses for a brick as he could. After taking the assignment home to work on further, he came up with over 30 ideas, many of which were not proposed by any other student. All of Michael’s ideas dealt with using a brick to break things. In what aspect of creativity proposed by Torrence is Michael lacking? Fluency or flexibility
answer

Flexibility
question

The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing “down” items before “across” items is an example of
answer

a heuristic.
question

The stage of transfer for strategies in which the teacher should provide new problems that can be solved with the same strategy is the stage of
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transfer
question

Rory learned about divergent rays in physics class when he was studying the effects of lenses. Later, in his psychology class, he immediately understood the concept of “divergent thinking.” What learning experience did Rory have?
answer

General transfer
question

Hernando looked at the problem and exclaimed: “Aha! This is just like when Ahab was obsessed with the great white whale, Moby Dick!” This comment is the result of
answer

analogical thinking.
question

Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be inefficient due to a)specific rather than general transfer taking place. b)the irrelevance of the subject. c)general rather than specific transfer taking place. d)the impracticality of disciplining mental processes.
answer

specific rather than general transfer taking place.
question

Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves a)using analogical reasoning and heuristics. b)beginning at the goal and moving backwards to the unsolved initial problem. c)distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals. d)limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem.
answer

distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals.
question

The eighth grade is preparing for its annual “School Scam Skit,” in which students parody amusing school events during the year. Alonzo, the class President, discovers that the class has mistakenly sold 500 tickets for an auditorium with a seating capacity of only 200. The auditorium is not available for any other night, and the class does not have the funds available to rent a suitable room elsewhere. Numerous possible solutions may exist, but the class is feeling panicked. The class officers are meeting in order to attempt to find a solution to this problem. What type of cognitive approach is each class officer using? checking the calendar to see if the program could be held on two consecutive nights; (2) checking with other junior or senior high schools in the community to find out about availability of their facilities; and (3) checking on the possibility of using the high school’s football stadium to construct a stage and lighting system for an outdoor program.
answer

working backwards
question

A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)
answer

algorithm
question

Which one of the following statements is TRUE? a)Students’ metacognitive skills are fixed because they are aligned to their learning style. b)Children in second grade are too young to engage in self-reflection. c)Very young children are better metacognitve thinkers than adolescents. d)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
answer

Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
question

Research findings suggest that students who tend to benefit most from cooperative learning experiences are those who a-receive individual tutoring from others b-are shy or introverted. c-have high goal expectations. d-are active in explaining things to others.
answer

are active in explaining things to others.
question

Cooperative learning involves the following: a-Extrinsic rewards, elaboration, and autonomy b-Cognitive flexibility, competition, and self-respect c-Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation d-Shared values, lack of conflict, and creativity
answer

Elaboration, interpretation, and argumentation
question

The principal characteristics of constructivist teaching are complex, real-life learning environments and a-social negotiation and shared responsibility. b-inquiry methods and discovery strategies. c-guided discovery and feedback. d-testing hypotheses and forming conclusions.
answer

social negotiation and shared responsibility.
question

Vygotsky’s notion that learning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural setting is consistent with a-sociological learning. b-relativistic learning. c-guided learning. d-situated learning.
answer

situated learning.
question

Sociological constructivists are concerned primarily with how a-individuals create knowledge. b-cognition creates culture. c-cultural context explains learning. d-public knowledge is created.
answer

public knowledge is created.
question

Piaget’s approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism? a-Logically directed b-Internally directed c-Externally directed d-Both externally and internally directed
answer

Externally directed
question

Vygotsky’s approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism?
answer

Both externally and internally directed
question

Which one of the following students is playing the role of reflector in a cooperative learning group? a-Helen is responsible for keeping the noise level of the group at a reasonable pitch. b-Amanda makes certain that the questions of all group members are asked and answered. c-Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal. d-Lawrence solicits equal participation of group members and restrains dominance by any group member.
answer

Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal.
question

The guided inquiry model developed by Magnusson, Palincsar, and their colleagues involves both firsthand investigations and a-pattern investigations. b-discovery methods. c-secondhand investigations. d-sequences of inquiry.
answer

secondhand investigations.
question

Marible was assigned the role of making sure her group understands the learning task. Her role is referred to as the a-checker. b-reflector c-quiet captain. d-gatekeeper.
answer

checker.
question

Which one of the following behaviors is one of the teacher’s roles in problem-based learning? a-Discourage students to conduct experiments. b-Demonstrate the steps in scientific investigations. c-Avoid assisting groups and independent investigations. d-Help students to reflect on their investigations.
answer

Help students to reflect on their investigations.
question

Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the role of expectations in social cognitive theory? a-Although expectations are important, they are too difficult to measure to be concerned about in everyday classroom activities. b-In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura’s social cognitive theory. c-Expectations plaid a large role in Bandura’s social learning theory, but do not play a key role in his social cognitive theory. d-According to Bandura’s theory, values are more important than expectations for understanding students’ motivation.
answer

In addition to beliefs and self-perceptions, expectations play a key role in Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
question

Bandura challenged and expanded his early work on behavioral conceptions of learning by focusing on a-acquisition of knowledge. b-observable performances. c-principles of reinforcement and punishment. d-social learning theory.
answer

social learning theory.
question

Zimmerman’s model of self-regulated learning ends the cycle with a-a plan to engage in more cooperative learning. b-the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance. c-setting new goals for learning tasks. d-the use of means-ends problem solving.
answer

the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance.
question

According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal causality? a-Personal factors b-Environmental factors c-Social factors d-Behavioral factors
answer

Personal factors
question

Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that students can learn from observing others complete a task? a-Social cognitive theory b-Constructivist theoretical perspectives c-Expectancy-value theory d-Behavioral theory
answer

Social cognitive theory
question

Mr. Jacoby is very effective at encouraging his students to become self-regulated learners because he includes the following in his teaching: a-Opportunities for students to develop their creative abilities b-Minimal feedback so that his students can evaluate their own work c-Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning d-Cooperative learning activities
answer

Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning
question

The following statement is true about the relation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. a-There is a strong relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem only for non-academic tasks. There is no relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem for academic tasks. b-There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. c-There is a strong positive correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem increases. d-There is a strong negative correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem. As self-efficacy increases, self-esteem decreases.
answer

There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem.
question

What are the steps involved in self-regulated learning? a-Self-efficacy, strategy use, volition b-Teaching, practice, goal-setting, reflective task analysis c-Modeling, reflection, self-evaluation, devising plans d-Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
answer

Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
question

The concept of self-determination is an important influence in what view of motivation? a-Humanistic b-Behavioral c-Social learning d-Cognitive
answer

Humanistic
question

In Maslow’s hierarchy, self-esteem is considered to be what type of need? a-Self-actualization b-Deficiency c-Being d-Proficiency
answer

Deficiency
question

An entity view of ability is consistent with what type of goals? a-Extrinsic b-Work-avoidance c-Performance d-Intrinsic
answer

Performance
question

A student’s reason for acting is called a-locus of causality. b-intrinsic motivation. c-extrinsic motivation. d-self-determined.
answer

locus of causality.
question

As need for achievement increases in spite of fear of failure, what type of student will be motivated to learn? a-Failure-accepting b-Socially-oriented c-Failure-avoiding d-Mastery-oriented
answer

Mastery-oriented
question

From the pioneering work of Yerkes and Dodson (1905) to present-day research results, what is the correlation between virtually every aspect of achievement and a wide variety of anxiety measures? a-Zero b-Negative c-Moderately positive d-Positive
answer

Negative
question

According to behavioral theory of motivation, students are motivated primarily by a(n) a-inherent need to understand what they are learning. b-desire for gaining fulfillment for their accomplishments. c-desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior. d-need for social recognition and status.
answer

desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior.
question

Individuals are naturally motivated to learn by a-seductive details. b-anxiety c-feedback and goal acceptance. d-performance goals.
answer

feedback and goal acceptance.
question

Students who demonstrate “learned helplessness” are likely to a-find ways to attribute their failures to others. b-focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
answer

focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
question

Harry is apathetic and certain that he is not able to do the work. He makes poor marks in school and is not inclined to seek help. According to attribution theory, Harry is typical of students who attribute their failures to causes that are a-internal, stable, and controllable. b-external, unstable, and uncontrollable. c-internal, stable, and controllable. d-internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
answer

internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
question

Sally sets unrealistically high goals for herself but is unsure about her abilities. Woolfolk would be likely to label Sally as a-mastery-oriented. b-failure-avoiding.
answer

failure-avoiding

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