Unit 1 Study Guide- US Government

Chapter 1
Chapter 1

Government
Institution in which a society makes and enforces its public policies

Public Policies
All the goals the gov. pursues in any areas

Democracy
Type of gov. where it is run by the people
-Direct
-Indirect
-Representative, US

State
Body of people living in a defines territory who have a gov with power to make and enforce laws

Unitary Government
Type of government where all power goes to one person or central agency
-**Think of waffle**

Federal Government
Type of government where powers are divided into two separate governments, federal and state

Confederation
Joining of several groups for a common reason
-**First type of gov. in US**

Majority Rule
In democracy, the more people are for something, then all will be for it

Linkage Institutions
Political channels through which people’s concerns become political issues on the policy agenda

Policy Making Institutions
Branches of gov. that take action on political issues
-Group of people

Chapter 2
Chapter 2

Articles of Confederation
Plan of gov. that was adopted by Continental Congress.
-After American Revolution
-“friendship between states”

Unicameral vs. Bicameral
Unicameral
-describes legislative body composed of ONE chamber
Bicameral
-describes legislative body composed of TWO chambers

Connecticut Compromise
Agreement that decided there should be Senate, so states are represented equally, and a House, representation is based on state’s population

Three-fifths Compromise
Slaves are counted as 3/5 of a person when determining population

Commerce Clause
Federal gov. has power to control trade between states
-Stretched a lot
-Commerce-trade

Federalists
Believed in strong central gov.
Supported Constitution
Need to control fractions
Organized, wrote essays on why they should have strong central gov

Anti-federalists
Thought strong central gov. would have too much power
Did not like the Constitution
People did not believe them, not organized

Chapter 3
Chapter 3

Popular Sovereignty
People are the source of any and all gov power
Gov. can only exist with consent of people

Limited Government
All states have certain rights and people have rights that limits the gov on what they can and can’t change with those rights

Separation of Power
All branches have equal power
Independent branches

Check and Balances
All branches can check each other to make sure not one branch is gaining too much power

Judicial Review
Power of the court to determine if an action of the gov is constituional

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Federalism
System of gov where a written constitution divides power between national, state, and local govs.

Grants
Money given from the gov that the state and local govs. do not need to pay back
-Categorical Grant
-Federal grants that can be used to specific purposes
-Block Grants
-Federal grants that can be used to any purpose
-*states favorites*

Supremacy Clause
Federal gov has supreme power of any state or local gov

Expressed Powers
Enumerated or expressed powers written in the Constitution
Federal Govs laws

Implied Powers
Elastic Clause
Stretch power

Inherent Powers
Powers exist because of the federal gov

Reserved Powers
Powers that are reserved for the state, meaning state has the power to make decision on certain things
Anything not stated in constitution are reserved powers

Exclusive Powers
Federal gov. only has these powers
Powers don’t belong to anyone else

Concurrent Powers
State and Federal gov make decisions
-State and federal gov can tax us

Questions
Questions

What are the 6 functions of American Gov?
-To form a more perfect union
-To establish justice
-Insure domestic tranquility
-Provide for Common Defense
-General Welfare
-Blessings of liberty

Legislative Branch
Led by Congress
-House and Senate
Make/pass laws
Impeach officials

Executive
Led by President
Makes new laws and carries out federal laws
Commands army
Vetos laws

Judicial
Led by Supreme Court
Interpret the Constitution
Review laws
Decides cases about state rights’

Characteristics of state
-Sovereignty
-Territory
-Government
-Population

Direct vs. Indirect
Direct Democracy- People talk directly to the gov about what they feel needs to change or be represented
Indirect Democracy- People go to local representatives and they go to the gov to support what we think should change or be in place

Who wrote the Declaration of Independence and why?
Thomas Jefferson
This showed Great Britain that they were serious about the separation from them and this showed the King the problems americans had with him

5 Grievances of the King
Stop trade
He made judicial decisions
Taxed us without consent
Put soldiers in peoples homes
Wouln’t allow local gov
Wouldn’t pass laws

Weakness of the Articles of Confederation
Lack of power to tax
Couldn’t control trade
Need all 13 states to amend articles
No executive/judicial branches

Federalist papers #10 and #51
#10
-We need strong central gov to control fractions
-Someone can step in and take control (supremacy clause)
-People argue it will be too big, but it’s still run by people
#51
Separation of Power
-Branches
Not one branch or gov is too powerful because they all have to check each other to make sure that one does not try to take over

Economic and Political problems with Articles of Confederation
Too much money was being printed causing inflation
Supreme power wasn’t given to Federal Gov
Debts increased and people couldn’t pay back loans

Shays’ Rebellion
The Articles of Confederation couldn’t deal with nations problems
War veterans and famers faced debts and loss of land

Problems with Federalism
All laws and policies have to be seen by gov to be passed
Both the state and national gov have power, hard to determine who is in charge of what

To be a member of the House…
-25 years old
-US citizen
-be inhabitant of the state

To be a member of the Senate…
-30 years old
-Must be in US for at least 9 years
-Inhabitant of the state they want to represent

To be the President…
-35 years old
-US resident for 14 years or more
-natural born citizen

How many total amendments are there?
27

If the President and Vice President can’t be President, then who takes over?
Speaker of the House

Necessary and Proper Clause
Congress has power to make laws