Ultimate chemistry Study Cards Flashcard

Chemistry
Science that describes matter
Matter
has mass and occupies space
Energy
capacity to do work
Exothermic
heat released
Endothermic
heat absorbed
Kinetic Energy
energy due to motion
Potential Energy
stored energy
Compound
combination of 2 or more elements
Elements
a pure substance that can not be broken down
What is the simplest unit in an element?
An atom/molecule
Polyatomic molecule
many atom molecule
What are the three states of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
What constitutes a physical change?
phase changes: melting, freezing,evaporation, boiling, condensation, sublimation, deposition,
What constitutes a chemical change?
When it becomes a whole different substance. rust, burning, fermentation
-1 or more substances used up/formed
-energy release/absorbed
Heterogeneous Mixture
2 or more substances that DO NOT mix-different throughout
Homogeneous Mixture
2 or more substances that do mix-same throughout
Cations
positive charge
Anions
Negative Charge
What consists a simple solution?
solute:gets dissovled
solvent
What are the amount comparisons between a solvent and solute?
solvent is in SMALLER amounts than a solute
What does balancing an equation require?
the same number and type of atoms on both sides of equation
Properties of an aqueous solution:
-water is a solvent
-compound is solute
-homogeneous mixture
-solute either liquid or solid at room temperature
*Its is a compound dissolved in water
What are the 3 subatomic particles and their charges?
Neutron-neutral-heavy
Proton-positive-heavy
Electron-negative-light
What will happen if all substances in an equation are ALL soluble?
NO REACTION will occur
In an aqueous solution, an acid and base have what kind of ions?
Acid-OH- ions
base-H+ ions
Oxidation Reduction
transfer of electrons from one compound to another
What happens when you change the amount of subatomic particles in an element?
Neutron-isotope
Election-ion
Proton-DIFFERENT element
Atomic Composition
the number of protons, electron and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Number
defined by proton number and EQUAL to electrons
Mass Number
proton and neutrons
Groups/families are..
vertical
periods/rows are..
horizontal
What are the main group elements?
1-Alkali Metals
2-Alkaline Earth Metals
7-Halogens
8-Noble Gases
Ionization Energy
energy required to remove an electron
Electronegativity
measure of “electron greed”-attract electrons to itself
Ionic Size
size of an ion
What is the oxidation number if the element is alone?
ALWAYS 0
Ammonium
NH4+
OH-
Hydroxide
Nitrate
NO3-
CLO3-
Chlorate
Acetate
C2H3O2
Carbonate
CO3-2
Sulfate
SO4-2
PO4-3
Phosphate
Valence Electrons are the…
outermost electrons
Octet Rule
Most atoms what 8 valence electrons
Exceptions:
H and He: want 2
Be: wants 4
Grp. 3: wants 6
Ionic Compounds
-soluble
Chemical Bonding
forces that hold atoms together
Ionic Compounds
-different electronegativities
-nonmetal x metal
-1.8+
-high melting points >400
-solids
Covalent Compounds
-similar electronegativities
-nonmetal x nonmetal
-.4 of less
-no ions(CH4, CL2)
-low melting points <300
-liquid, gases, and solids
Nonpolar Bond
shared equally
-2 of the same atom=non polar
-electronegativity differences: 0-.45
Polar Bond
Shared unequally
-dissolves in water
-electronegativity differences:.45-1.75
What is the central atom?
atom bonded to more than 1 atom
Electron Group
regions of high electron density
What dictates the shape of an atom?
the central atom
Dipole Dipole
-between nonmetal x nonmetal
-polar
Ion-ion
-nonmetal x metal
-strongest
H bonding
a strong dipole dipole
H with NOF
Water is
polar
Oil is
non polar
Like dissolves like=
polar dissolves polar
non polar dissolves non polar
Molecular Polarity
whether or not electrons are evenly distributed in a molecule
Molecular shape
arrangement of atoms

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