U.S. History: Unit 6 – The Gilded Age Study Guide

Andrew Carnegie
Created Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker J.P. Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the “Captains of Industry.”

J.P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the “Robber Barons.”

John D. Rockerfeller
He was the head of the Standard Oil Company and one of the world’s richest men. Used horizontal integration. He used his fortune to fund ongoing philanthropic causes. Was one of the “Captain’s of Industry.”

Gustavus Swift
He developed a meat packing empire in Chicago. Developer of an efficient system of mechanical refrigeration, an innovation that earned him a fortune and provided a major stimulus to the growth of the cattle industry.

Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book “Up from Slavery.”

Great Railroad Strike of 1877
July, 1877 – A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting.

Haymarket Affair (Riot)
The Haymarket affair was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. (Albert Parsons was a labor union activist.)

American Federation of Labor
Alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; focus was clear-cut issues such as higher wages, skilled workers, more organized, no women, shorter hours, and better working conditions.

Knights of Labor
(Free for all union)
Open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they worked.

Greenback-Labor Party
– Trade Union
– Anti-monopolies
– Skilled workers only
– The Grange Farmers Alliance
– AFL (American Federation of Labor)

Gilded Age (5 Causes)
– Large amount of natural resources
– Large population
– A lot of money is being invested
– New technology
– Government was pro big business

Robber Barons & Captains of Industry
*Robber Barons*: was a business leader who acquired a fortune by ruthless means.
*Captains of Industry*: was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way.

a person who gives money or gifts to charities; a wealthy person with a generous nature and concern for human welfare.

Vertical Integration
a practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution.

Horizontal Integration
a form of corporate organization in which several branches of a company or several commonly owned companies work together to sell their products in different markets.

Industrialization (Post Civil War)
– Created tons of factories in big cities
– Urbanization
– Consumerism
– More jobs

a movement to educate buyers about the purchases they make and to demand better and safer products from manufacturers.

Social Darwinism
Plessy v Ferguson was the court that proved separate is equal.

Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

Scientific Management
A management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it.

Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.

Women’s Movement
Lead to primarily gender equality, safe working conditions, suffrage, etc.
*Triangle shirtwaist factory fire*: On March 25, 1911, it burned, killing 145 workers. It was a true sweatshop, employing young immigrant women who worked in a cramped space at lines of sewing machines. Nearly all the workers were teenaged girls who did not speak English, working 12 hours a day, every day.

Immigration (Old vs. New)
The old were treated far better than the new immigrants coming into the United States. Obstacles/issues were the process, culture shock, and the tenement houses. Government policy was the Chinese Exclusion Act.

Acronym for “Young Men’s Christian Association.” Goal of this organization was to put Christian principles into practice by promoting a healthy; mind, body, and spirit.

Sierra Club
American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.

Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine’s and attempts to grab more votes for his party.

Urban Reform
Created many beautification aspects in the cities. Created parks, theaters, concert halls, etc.