U.S. History Terms (Finals)

Flashcard maker : Henry Lowe
Columbian Exchange
The global transfer of living things; began with Columbus’ first voyage
Virginia Company’s settlement; named for their king
Religious group that felt the church had kept too much catholic ritual; wanted to \”purify\” the church my eliminating all traces of Catholicism
Cash Crop
Crop grown primarily for sale rather than livestock feed
Stono Rebellion
Slave uprising. 20 slaves gathered at the Stono River and killed planter families. This scared Southern Colonists, leading to tightening of existing harsh slave laws
Movement in which philosophers valued reason and the scientific method
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation line along the Appalachians which colonists were not allowed to cross in order to avoid conflict with that Native Americans
Economic system in which a nation could increase its wealth and power in 2 ways:
1. By obtaining as much gold and silver as possible
2. Establishing a favorable balance of trade (sold more goods than bought)
French and Indian War
Conflict in North America that was part of a worldwide struggle between Britain and France. Ended with the defeat of France and the transfer of French Canada to Britain
American Revolution
Colonies’ fight for independence from Britain
Stamp Act
Act imposing a tax on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and playing cards. The stamp was placed on the item to prove that the tax had been paid. It was the first tax that affected the colonists directly
Boston Tea Party
Indians dumped 18000 pounds of East India Company’s tea into the Boston Harbor
Boston Massacre
Mob gathered in front of the Boston Customs House and taunted British soldiers standing guard. Shots were fired and 5 colonists were killed are morally wounded
Sam Adams
One of the founders of the Sons of Liberty. Led the colonists to boycott British goods. I think we need more information on him so again, if anyone finds anything else important post it on the wall.
Lexington and Concord
Paul Revere and a few others rode out to spread the word that 700 British troops were headed for Concord. When the British reached Lexington (5 miles before Concord) one of the colonists (minutemen) fired and the British soldiers began shooting. When the British reached Concord they found an empty arsenal and began their retreat back to Boston. The retreat became a slaughter between the colonists and the British.
European assistance during the revolution
Prussia and France
Declaration of Independence
Declared independence from Britain
Great Compromise
Offered a two-house congress to satisfy both small and big states
The official approval of the constitution, or an amendment, by the states
Powers of Congress
Age 88 has all of them. I’m not sure which ones we need to know so just read over all of them.
The Elastic Clause
Clause that stretches the power of the government. The power to \”make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers that the Constitution enumerates\”
Government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. Consist of a formal list of citizens’ rights and freedoms
Checks and Balances
The provisions in the Constitution that prevent any branch of the government from dominating the other two branches
Washington’s cabinet
Secretary of state-Thomas Jefferson, treasury- Alexander Hamilton War-Henry Knox
Alien and Sedition
Four measures, three of which raised residents’ requirement for US citizenship from 5 yrs to 14 yrs, and allowed the president to deport or jail any alien he considered undesirable. The fourth set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the operation or who spoke out against the government.
States had the right to consider void any act of congress that they deemed unconstitutional.
Electoral college
Instead of choosing president directly, each state choose a group of electors who would cast ballots for presidential candidates.
Thomas Jefferson
Virginia lawyer who was chosen to prepare the final draft of the Declaration of Independence. Add more to this.
Marbury v. Madison
Court case that results in judicial review- the right for the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
Monroe Doctrine
A policy of US opposition to any European interference in the affairs of the western hemisphere announced by president Monroe.
War of 1812
Against Great Britain because they threatened American Shipping.
John Quincy Adams
Beat Andrew Jackson, appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State. Conflict between Jackson and Clay tore apart the Democratic-Republican party.
Missouri comp
Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as slave, the rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two parts.
Judicial Review
The right for the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
Trail of Tears
The forced march the Cherokee followed from Georgia to the Indian Territory
Seneca Falls Convention
Women’s rights convention wanted women’s suffrage
Nat Turner
Led a rebellion of him and 50 other slaves, they attacked 4 plantations and killed 60 whites; he was eventually captured and executed.
Emphasized that truth could be discovered intuitively by observing nature and relating it to emotions and spiritual experiences.
Frederick Douglass
Escaped from bondage to become an outspoken critic of slavery. He began his own antislavery newspaper called the North Star.
Compromise of 1850 (to please the North)
California is admitted as a free state.
Compromise of 1850 (to please the South)
More effective fugitive slave law is put into effect
Compromise of 1850 (to please both sides)
Popular sovereignty in Utah territories or New Mexico.
Popular Sovereignty
The right to vote for or against slavery
Dred Scott Decision
Not only permitted extension of slavery, but guaranteed it. Just because you are in a free state, you are not a free man. Taney argues that Scott had no grounds to go to court because he was not a citizen he was property, 5th amendment supports him.
John Brown’s raid
Abolitionist who led a group of abolitionists into Harper’s Ferry.
Brown’s Goal
Seize federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. Revolutionary because it was the first time white and black men were willing to die for slavery.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
White female author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book criticized slavery and the South took it as a criticism of their way of life.
Free Soil Movement
Opposed extension of blacks into the Northern territory, because they feared competition for jobs would drive down wages.
Lincoln’s Reconstruction
Government would pardon all confederated who would swear allegiance to the Union. As soon as 10% of those who had voted took this oath, a confederate state could form a new state government and send representatives and senators to congress.
Andrew Johnson
Plan tried to break the planter’s power by excluding high ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from taking the oath. He believed that white men alone must manage the South.
Enforcement Act
One act provided for the federal supervision of elections in Southern states. The other act gave the president the power to use federal troops in areas where the clan was active. These acts were made to curtail.
Northerners who moved to the South after the war. They got the name from the misconception that they arrived with so few belongings that they carried everything in small traveling bags made of carpet.
14th amendment
Defined citizenship, prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any natural born citizen. (1868)
19th amendment
Women’s suffrage (1921)
26th amendment
Set a minimum voting age of 18 for all federal, state and local elections. (1971)
Landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres along with season tools.
15th amendment
No one can be kept from voting because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Reconstruction act of 1876
Divided the former Confederate states into 5 military districts. The states were required to grant African American the vote and to ratify the 14 Amendment to reenter the Union.
End of Reconstruction
Ended without much real progress
Texas Revolution
The rebellion in which Texas gained its Independence from Mexico.
Mexican War
War with the U.S. Need more information on this.
James K. Polk
1844 presidential race, he was a slaveholder who firmly favored the annexation of Texas.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty ending the U.S. war with Mexico in which Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States.
Treaty of Velasco
Granted independence to Texas.
Sam Houston
Texan rebels commander and chief. Elected president of the new republic of Texas.
Spanish-American War
The US went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
Populist party platform
Economic reforms included increase in money supply, graduated tax income, and a federal loan program. Their changes attracted struggling farmers and laborers. Their programs became the platform of the Democratic Party.
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the US would inevitably expand Westward to the Pacific ocean and into Mexican territory.
The policy of extending a nation’s authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means.
Roosevelt Corollary
Extension of the Monroe Doctrine, US claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
Panama Canal
Provided a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and was built because the US supported Panama’s independence from Columbia.
The Jungle
Opening people’s eyes to harsh working conditions
Movement seeking to control the government to the people to restore economic opportunities and to correct injustices in American life.
Mexican Independence
Occurred in 1821
Period in which alcohol was banned.
Alice Paul, different tactics:
1. Painstaking organization
2. Close ties between local state and national workers.
3. Wide base of support
4.Cautious lobbing
5. Lady-like behavior.
Religious persecution, war activity, and oppressive government encouraged immigrants to move to America.
New jobs opportunities encouraged immigrants to move to America
Central powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
France, Britain, and Russia
Long-Term Causes of World War I
Militarism, Alliance system, Imperialism, Nationalism. (M.A.I.N)
Immediate Cause of World War I
Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Espionage and Sedition
Two laws that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in WW1.
Wilson’s 14 Point Plan
Plan for world peace. First 5 were issues he believed had to be addressed to prevent another war. The next 8 dealt with boundary changes. 14th called for the creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crisis.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty at the end of WWI which established the new nations, borders, and war reparations.

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