U.S. History Study Guide: Articles of Confederation and United States Constitution Study Guide.

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Veto
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To reject a bill and prevent it from becoming a law
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Compromise
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Agreement between 2 or more sides ( giving up some of what it wants)
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Bill of rights
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First 10 amendments of the Constitution
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Executive branch
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Division of federal government (President and administrative)
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Confederation
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Group of people join together in some of activity or effort
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Neutrality
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quality or state of not supporting either side of an argument
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Bicameral
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Lawmaking body made up of two houses
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Republic
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Government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
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Legislative branch
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Vision of government that proposes bills and passes them to make laws
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Unconstitutional
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Not agreeing or consistent with the Constitution
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Judicial branch
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Branch of government including the federal court and interpret nations laws
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Nullify
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Cancel or make ineffective
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Precedent
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A tradition
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Constitution
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Formal plan of government
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Federalism
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Sharing of power between federal and state
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Unalienable rights
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A right that cannot be surrendered
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Posterity
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People in the future
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Bill
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Written document of note; formal petition
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House of Representatives
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Lower house of legislative body (Congress)
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Senate
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Small group of people who meet to discuss and make laws (Congress)
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Checks and balances
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A system of each branch checking the other two branches so they are equal
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Judicial review
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Right of the Supreme Court to determine if laws violate the constitution
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Elastic cause
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Article 1 section 8 granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary for carrying out the enumerated list of power
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Amendment
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In addition to a formal document, constitution
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Ratify
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To give official approval to
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Separation of Powers
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Vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies
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Preamble
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Introduction to the constitution
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Impeachment
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Charging a public official with misconduct in the office
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Revenue
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Incoming money
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Apportionment
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Determining number of House of Representatives according to the population of each state to the total population of the US
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Popular Sovereignty
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Giving power to the chosen government
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Republicanism
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Favoring a republic
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Liberty
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The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority in one’s way of life, behavior, or political views
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Ordinance
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Chief executive
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Federalist
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People who supported ratification of the Constitution
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Antifederalist
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People who opposed ratification of the Constitution
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Senators
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Congress
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Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
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Northwest Ordinance
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Legislation passed by Congress to establish a political structure for the land in the northwest territory and create a system for the admission of new states
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Land Ordinance
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Legislation passed by the Congress authorizing surveys and the division of lands in the western region of the country
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Great Compromise
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Agreement worked out at the Constitutional convention establishing that a states population would determine representation in the lower house of legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of legislature
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3/5th Compromise
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Agreement worked out at the Constitutional convention stating that 3/5 of the slaves in each state should be counted as part of the state’s population for determining representation in the lower house of Congress
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Roles of the Three branches
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Executive branch-this branch enforces the laws that the congress passes Judicial branch-this branch can strike down state or federal laws if it finds a law unconstitutional Legislative branch-
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Structure of the Three Branches
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Executive branch-The president is the head of the executive branch. Judicial branch-this branch is made up of a system of federal courts headed by the US Supreme Court. Legislative branch-also known as the Congress is divided into the House of Representatives and the Senate. According to article 1 of the Constitution, the House of Representatives is made up of 435 members The population count takes every 10 years and decides the number of representatives for each state. In addition the Senate is made up of two representatives called Senators from each state.
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Term length and Limitations of the Three Branches
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Executive branch-The president can serve for four years and must be elected by electoral college Judicial branch-supreme Court justices can serve for life it must be appointed by President and approved by the Senate Legislative branch-six years for senators and must be originally chosen by state legislature per constitution and currently elected by voters of state per 17th amendment. Meanwhile, the representatives can serve for two years and be elected by voters of the district.
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Requirements for electability
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Executive branch-The president/vice president has to be at least 35 years old, a natural born citizen, and lived in the United States for 14 years Judicial branch-none Legislative branch-senators had to be at least 30 years old, be a US citizen for nine years, and lived in the state they were elected.
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Articles of Confederation in Comparison to the U.S. Constitution
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Executive branch- The articles of confederation had no executive minister and enforce legislation. Congress had sole authority to govern, while in the constitution the president of ministered and enforce federal laws Legislative branch- The articles of confederation had one house legislature while the constitution had two houses. In addition each state had one vote regardless of population, while each state had equal representation in the Senate in each state was represented according to its population in the House of Representatives. Judicial branch- your articles of confederation had no national court system, what the constitution had a national court system headed by the Supreme Court. Also, The articles of confederation used the Congress to establish temporary courts to hear cases of piracy, why don’t the constitution had chords to hear cases involving national laws treaties of the constitution as well as cases between states between citizens of different states or between a state and citizen of another state.
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Major Principles of the United States Constitution
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How the founding Fathers met the goals of the Preamble
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Structure of the U.S. Government
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How today’s Government promotes the General Welfare
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General Powers of the Legislative Branch
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General Powers of the Judicial Branch
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General Powers of the Executive Branch
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Indivisual Powers of the President
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Bill of Rights- 1st Amendment Rights
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Bill of Rights- 5th Amendment Rights
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