U.S. History Study Guide: Articles of Confederation and United States Constitution Study Guide.

Veto
To reject a bill and prevent it from becoming a law

Compromise
Agreement between 2 or more sides ( giving up some of what it wants)

Bill of rights
First 10 amendments of the Constitution

Executive branch
Division of federal government (President and administrative)

Confederation
Group of people join together in some of activity or effort

Neutrality
quality or state of not supporting either side of an argument

Bicameral
Lawmaking body made up of two houses

Republic
Government in which citizens rule through elected representatives

Legislative branch
Vision of government that proposes bills and passes them to make laws

Unconstitutional
Not agreeing or consistent with the Constitution

Judicial branch
Branch of government including the federal court and interpret nations laws

Nullify
Cancel or make ineffective

Precedent
A tradition

Constitution
Formal plan of government

Federalism
Sharing of power between federal and state

Unalienable rights
A right that cannot be surrendered

Posterity
People in the future

Bill
Written document of note; formal petition

House of Representatives
Lower house of legislative body (Congress)

Senate
Small group of people who meet to discuss and make laws (Congress)

Checks and balances
A system of each branch checking the other two branches so they are equal

Judicial review
Right of the Supreme Court to determine if laws violate the constitution

Elastic cause
Article 1 section 8 granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary for carrying out the enumerated list of power

Amendment
In addition to a formal document, constitution

Ratify
To give official approval to

Separation of Powers
Vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies

Preamble
Introduction to the constitution

Impeachment
Charging a public official with misconduct in the office

Revenue
Incoming money

Apportionment
Determining number of House of Representatives according to the population of each state to the total population of the US

Popular Sovereignty
Giving power to the chosen government

Republicanism
Favoring a republic

Liberty
The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority in one’s way of life, behavior, or political views

Ordinance

Chief executive

Federalist
People who supported ratification of the Constitution

Antifederalist
People who opposed ratification of the Constitution

Senators

Congress

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

Northwest Ordinance
Legislation passed by Congress to establish a political structure for the land in the northwest territory and create a system for the admission of new states

Land Ordinance
Legislation passed by the Congress authorizing surveys and the division of lands in the western region of the country

Great Compromise
Agreement worked out at the Constitutional convention establishing that a states population would determine representation in the lower house of legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of legislature

3/5th Compromise
Agreement worked out at the Constitutional convention stating that 3/5 of the slaves in each state should be counted as part of the state’s population for determining representation in the lower house of Congress

Roles of the Three branches
Executive branch-this branch enforces the laws that the congress passes
Judicial branch-this branch can strike down state or federal laws if it finds a law unconstitutional
Legislative branch-

Structure of the Three Branches
Executive branch-The president is the head of the executive branch.
Judicial branch-this branch is made up of a system of federal courts headed by the US Supreme Court.
Legislative branch-also known as the Congress is divided into the House of Representatives and the Senate. According to article 1 of the Constitution, the House of Representatives is made up of 435 members The population count takes every 10 years and decides the number of representatives for each state. In addition the Senate is made up of two representatives called Senators from each state.

Term length and Limitations of the Three Branches
Executive branch-The president can serve for four years and must be elected by electoral college
Judicial branch-supreme Court justices can serve for life it must be appointed by President and approved by the Senate
Legislative branch-six years for senators and must be originally chosen by state legislature per constitution and currently elected by voters of state per 17th amendment. Meanwhile, the representatives can serve for two years and be elected by voters of the district.

Requirements for electability
Executive branch-The president/vice president has to be at least 35 years old, a natural born citizen, and lived in the United States for 14 years
Judicial branch-none
Legislative branch-senators had to be at least 30 years old, be a US citizen for nine years, and lived in the state they were elected.

Articles of Confederation in Comparison to the U.S. Constitution
Executive branch- The articles of confederation had no executive minister and enforce legislation. Congress had sole authority to govern, while in the constitution the president of ministered and enforce federal laws
Legislative branch- The articles of confederation had one house legislature while the constitution had two houses. In addition each state had one vote regardless of population, while each state had equal representation in the Senate in each state was represented according to its population in the House of Representatives.
Judicial branch- your articles of confederation had no national court system, what the constitution had a national court system headed by the Supreme Court. Also, The articles of confederation used the Congress to establish temporary courts to hear cases of piracy, why don’t the constitution had chords to hear cases involving national laws treaties of the constitution as well as cases between states between citizens of different states or between a state and citizen of another state.

Major Principles of the United States Constitution

How the founding Fathers met the goals of the Preamble

Structure of the U.S. Government

How today’s Government promotes the General Welfare

General Powers of the Legislative Branch

General Powers of the Judicial Branch

General Powers of the Executive Branch

Indivisual Powers of the President

Bill of Rights- 1st Amendment Rights

Bill of Rights- 5th Amendment Rights

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