Topic 5- Periodic Table (Chemistry)

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Classifying Elements
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-Mendeleev aranged elements in usable manner (arranged by atomic mass) -Periodic Law: Properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic #’s
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Arrangement of the Periodic Table
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Periods- are the horizontal rows
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GROUPS
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each elemeent in these vertical columns has the SAME number of VALENCE ELECTRONS and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
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Metals
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-Group 1 and 2= most active -metallic properties increase from top to bottom -Fr is the most active -To the LEFT of the zigzag
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General Properties of Metals
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-Solids at room temp. (Hg is a liquid) -Densities greater than water (only group 1 floats) -malleable -ductile (can be pulled into wire) -luster (shiny) -good conductors of hear and electricity -low ionization and electronegativity -LOSE ELECTRONS TO FORM POSITIVE IONS WITH SMALLER RADII
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Transition Elements
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-Metals in the Valley -hard solids with high melting points -multiple oxidation states -form ions that have COLOR
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METALLOIDS
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-AKA semimetals -both metallic and nonmetallic properties -staircase -TOUCH the zigzag
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NONMETALS PROPERTIES
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-To the RIGHT of the zigzag (except noble gases) -most gases or molecular solids -not malleable -not ductile -lack luster -poor conductors of heat and electricity -High ionzation energy and electronegativity -gain electrons to form negative ions with larger radii -brittle
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NOBLE GASES- Inert Gases
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-Group 18 -do not have all properties of nonmetals -unreactive -COMPLETE OCTET (8 valence electrons) -Stable -All the other elements want to be like the noble gases
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Allotropes
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Ionization Energy
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-amount if energy needed to remove the most loosely bound electrons -more electrons to remove require more energy TRENDS: -left to Right= INCREASES -top to bottom= DECREASES
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Atomic Radii
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-good measure of the size of an atom TRENDS: -left to right: DECREASES -Top to Bottom- INCREASES
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Ionic Radii
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Metals LOSE electrons to be ions. Radius is SMALLER Nonmetals GAIN electrons to be ions. Radius is BIGGER
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Electronegativity
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LEFT TO RIGHT- INCREASE TOP TO BOTTOM- DECREASE
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Group 1 & 2
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Group 1- Alkali Metals Group 2- Alkali-Earth Metals Easily lose electrons Low ionization energy and electronegativity energy Top to Bottom- more reactive Group 1 more reactive than group 2
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Group 15
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Am means nitrogen is present
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Group 16
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CHALCOGENS -diatomic molecule (2 atoms) -oxidation state= -2
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Group 17
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HALOGENS contains all 3 types of matter reactive
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Group 18
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NOBLE GASES monatomic- 1 atom -stable -unreactive
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REACTION BETWEEN GROUPS
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Group 1 + 17 formula is XM Group 2 + 17 formula is XM₂

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