The Social Context View of Sociology Chapter 1

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Sociology
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The study of social organization
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Social organization or social context
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Refers to the patterns of human relationships and interactions that characterize social life
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Theory
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an organized way of explaining something
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3 major theories of sociological theories
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Functionalism conflict and symbolic interactionism
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Functionalism
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Views society and other social contacts in terms of the function it serves
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Manifest function
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the anticipated/intended function
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Latent Function
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the unanticipated/unplanned function
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Conflict theory
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Focuses on the aspect of context that are conducive to struggle and conflict (in that struggle some people are able to excursive power and achieve great rewards)
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Symbolic interaction
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Believes that human beings are social actors that create and determine the world around them through language
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Position
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Refers to social location in a social organized (ex. families have positions such as wife, husband, and child)
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Status
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the ranking of a position in a social organization from low to high along some criteria such as power
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Role
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the way a person in a particular position within a social organization is expected to act
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Norms
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expectations of behavior associated with the various positions, statuses, and roles in society
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Social structure
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the way position, status, roles, and norms are organized in a social organization at any given time
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Process
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how social organizations change
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Population
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The study of characteristics of individuals in a geographic area which impact the development of social organization
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Collectivity or Aggregation
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envolved in engaging in collective action
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Social stratification
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the division of people in a society based on their social class
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Groups
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two or more people who know each other and develop a pattern of interaction based on common experience
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Family
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cosseting of men and women connected to each other on the basis of kinship to produce, nurture and socialize children
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Communities
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Social organizations characterized by a contiguous geographic area wherein people have organized to meet their needs and concerns as they carry out their daily lives
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Associations
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Social organization formed in pursuit of some specific common goal
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Institutions
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Patterns of activities which are seen as crucial and important to the society (ex. religion, politics, health, and education)
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Networks
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Tie together social organizations concerned with similar activities in their pursuit of goals
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Micro Networks
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social organizations that link together large numbers of individuals, rather than organizations
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Macro Networks
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tie the social organizations of the world together and help to coordinate social life
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Society
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Characterized by autonomy, geographic boundaries, a shared culture, grater self sufficiency and independence in decision making
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Confederated system
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a social organization that ties societies together because of their involvement in a core set of activities
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Concepts
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ideas sociologists have developed to describe or explain social phenomena
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Principle of least interest
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person who has the lest interest in a relationship controls the relationship
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Mating Grading
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mend tend to marry down in terms of education and social class whereas women tend to marry up

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