The Inorganic Chemistry

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What are the two kinds of mixtures? What is a solution?
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-A solution occurs when molecules of the substance are evenly dispersed among molecules of another substance. -Homogeneous and Heterogeneous are the two forms of mixture
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What is a mixture?
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The combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded and not fixed proportions to one another. There are two forms of mixture. Homozygous and Heterozygous are the two forms of mixture.
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What is a solvent?
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Most abundant substance in a solution and is usually a liquid, but can consist of a liquid, solid,mor gas also known as the phases of matter.
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Ionic bonding?
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Water is a good solvent?
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Due to its polar nature its able to be apart of both forms of mixtures.
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Non ionic bond
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Molecules have no charge and are considered neutral
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Ionic
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Molecules have a charge and are never neutral
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Water is a universal solvent?
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So many substances can dissolve into water in various ways
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Includes total concentration or quantity of all dissolved inorganic solids or more precisely ions called dissolved salts.
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What is salinity?
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Average Salinity
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35, which is equivalent to 35 ppt 35g/kg Kg= 10 Various in salinity as small as 0.01 are of great value significance to oceanographers.
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Variations
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There’s a great deal of variations of salinity in specific areas: from near zero at the mouths of rivers to more than (40 ppt) in confined areas like the Red Sea.
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Proportion
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Proportion of salinity doesn’t change in seawater, only the amount of relative water changes. Salinity changes when when freshwater enters into the ocean mostly from rivers and rain or even as water evaporates.
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Brackish water
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Results when freshwater mixes into estuaries with a total salinity of (0.6 ppt) to (30 ppt).
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Brine water
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Saturated or nearly saturated with dissolved salts which develop in areas with high evaporation and little inflow of freshwater. Brine also develops where salt domes dissolve at the seafloor, as common as in the Gulf of Mexico.
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Disassociated Ions
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Most dissolved salts in seawater exist as dissociated ions.
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Sodium Chloride (rock salt)
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-Halite – most abundant of all Hamites is (NACl)
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Colligative Properties
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Properties of a liquid that may be altered by the presence of a solute Ex. Since pure water has nothing dissolved into it, it has no colligative properties. Colligative properties usually have to do with seawater. Freshwater can have Colligative properties as well but not as much as seawater. The quantity of the solute decides how strong the Colligative properties will be.
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Colligative Properties of Seawater
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-Raised Boiling Point: Seawater boils at a slightly higher temperature than pure fresh water. -Decreased Freezing Temperature: As salinity increases, water resist freezing. This is why salt is sometimes used on the road during ice and snowstorms. Seawater freezes at a slightly lower temperature than fresh water. -Ability to Create Osmotic Pressure: (osmos means to thrust) A law if chemistry that fluids diffuse from high area to low area of concentration until concentration equalizes. -If there is seawater on one side of a semipermeable membrane and fresh water in the other, a pressure exist from the fresh waters tendency to diffuse through the membrane.
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Equilibrium
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Reached once enough water has moved to equalize the solute concentration on both sides of the membrane.Osmosis and Osmotic pressure are crucial to many biological process.
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Colligative Properties
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-Electrically conductive : Salts in seawater act as electrolytes, substances that conduct electricity once dissolved in water. -Decreased Heat Capacity: it takes less heat to raise the temperature if seawater than to raise fresh water to the same degree – Slowed Evaporation: attraction between ions and water molecules keeps water from evaporating easily. Seawater will evaporate more slowly than fresh water, all else being equal.
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Principle of Constant Proportion
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Th constant relationship of proportions in seawater.
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Conservative Constinuients
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Dissolved salts that do not change proportions
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Always Remember
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No matter how much the salinity varies, the proportions of several key inorganic elements and compounds DO NOT ChANGE. This is useful because when you know how much of one element there is, you can determine how much there is of all of the other elements as well. Only the amount of water and salinity changes.
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CTD
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Conductivity,Temperature,Depth
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Temperature is measured by a
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Thermistor, which is a semiconductor having resistance that varies and predictably with temperature
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Conductivity
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Is determined by measuring current flowing between two platinum electrodes sealed in a tube of non conducting glass.
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Where do sea salts come from?
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Constant runoff, rain, erosion, and other natural forces create sea salts.
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Is the ocean getting saltier?
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No it’s it, it’s actually pretty steady and there’s no signs of the ocean becoming more or less saltier.
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Global Salinity
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Tropical regions tend to be saltier than temperate regions
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Latitude
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Equator is warmer than the water near the poles.
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Therm means
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Heat
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Clinare means
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Slope
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Halo
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Salt
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Potenz
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Power
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Carbonate compensation depth
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Transition between less acidic and ore acidic water

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