TExES Gen. 4-8 – Social Studies

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Texas Natives
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Caddo, Coahuiltecans, Karankawas
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Caddo
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Built the first buildings in Texas
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Coahuiltecans
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Nomadic trappers and hunters
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Karankawas
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Created dugout canoes and small ships
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Lipan, Apache and Comanche
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Buffalo hunters who tamed wild mustangs
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Pueblo
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Built elaborate homes and cites
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Reasons for European Exploration
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1. To find new trade routes to the far east 2. To map uncharted areas 3. To find treasure 4. To set up colonies 5. Missionary Work
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De Pineda
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1519 – Led first expedition to TX. Explored the Gulf
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De Vaca
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1527 – Mission to claim land in the Gulf. Started in FL and traveled to TX. Mapped and recorded parts of TX. One of the first records of America
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Coronado
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1540 – Came to find the city of gold, but left empty handed
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La Salle
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1682 – French explore who came from Canada down the Miss. River and claimed land for France. Set up the first French colony in TX.
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William Bradford
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2nd gov. of the Plymouth colony and ordered the first Thanksgiving with the Natives
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Roger Williams
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Banished from Plymouth for advocating for religious freedom and set up RI
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John Smith
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Est. trade relations with the Powhatans
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Pocahontas
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Daughter of Powhatan chief and convinced him to help the Jamestown settlers
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John Rolfe
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Member of Jamestown and started American tobacco industry
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Squanto
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A Patuxet Native who taught the Plymouth settlers to fish, hunt and grow crops
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Mayflower Compact
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1620 – The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
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The French and Indian War
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1754-63 – Conflict between the French and the British. The Natives fought with the French.
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Cause of the French and Indian War
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Britain and France were at war and this led to conflicts between their colonies British wanted land owned by the French for fur trading
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Results of the French and Indian War
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1. French lost most of it’s North American land 2. Britain got the land east of the river 3. Spain got the land west of the river and New Orleans 4. Britain cracked down on the colonies
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American Revolution
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1776-83
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The Articles of the Confederation
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First American Constitution Monarch free government Weak federal rights and strong states rights
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The War of 1812
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Between British and Americans.
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Causes of the War of 1812
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Britain and France were capturing U.S. trade ships U.S. wanted Canada and Florida
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Results of the War of 1812
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Britain recognized the U.S.’s boundaries Industry flourished because they did not need to rely on British imports U.S. was recognized by other countries
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The Homestead Act of 1862
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This act granted 160 acres to any family that would agree to farm it for at least five years. Led to settling of land out West
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Texas Revolution
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1820-40 – Stephen Austin brought Whites to TX to settle there in 1821. In 1830, Mexico declared that no more U.S. citizens could enter the area. Battles ensued and Mexico dominated until 1836 when Gen. Houston defeat Mexican forces. Texas became an independent country, but joined the U.S. in 1839.
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Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
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Mexican general who led the assaults on Texans in the Texas Revolution
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William Travis
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Commander at the Alamo
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The Mexican War
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1846-48 – Conflict between Mexico and the U.S. over Texas land
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Causes of the Mexican War
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1. Mexico did not like that Texas joined the Union 2. Dispute over the southern border of TX 3. U.S. wanted more Mexican land
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Results of the Mexican War
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1. Rio Grande was est. as the TX southern board 2. Mexico sold California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona, NM and Colorado.
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The Civil War
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1861-65
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The Compromises of 1820 and 1860
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Said that states entreating the union had to chose to be a slave state or a free state. This was to balance the power of each side in congress
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Emancipation Proclamation
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1863
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Causes of the Civil War
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1. Slavery 2. States rights (specifically over the ability to secede)
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Results of the Civil War
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1. Slavery Ended 2.Secession was no longer allowed 3. The U.S. gov. was reconstructed to change civil rights laws
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13th Amendment
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Abolished Slavery
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14th Amendment
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Gave citizenship to all freed slaves
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15th Amendment
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Gave all men the right to vote who were over the age of 21
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Freedman’s Bureau
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Office set up to help newly freed slaves
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Compromise of 1877
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Ended Reconstruction and called for the removal of union troops from confederate states
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Civil Rights Act of 1866
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Gives any person born in the U.S. citizenship
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Spanish-American War
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1898 – Spain and the U.S. fought over The Philippines and Cuba
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Causes of the Spanish-American War
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1. The Maine was sunk in a peace-keeping mission near Cuba while Cuba fought for independence 2. Americans wanted to help get Cuba away from Spain
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Results of the Spanish-American War
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1. Cuba gained limited independence from Spain 2. U.S. got The Philippines, Guam and PR as territories
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WWI
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1914-18 Between the Allie Powers and Central Powers
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Causes of WWI
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1. European Industrial power wanted to increase 2. Archeduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated and led to Austria declaring war on Serbia 3. U.S. got involved when Germany attacked a U.S. Ship. 4. Countries formed alliances
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Results of WWI
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1. Germany was blamed for the start of the war 2. Ended with the Treaty of Versailles 3. Having penalties were placed on Germany
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19th Amendment
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Women’s Suffrage
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The New Deal
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Created by Franklin Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression. 1. FEMA 2. Social Security 3. Agricultural Adjustment Act 4. Tennessee Valley Authority 5. Civilian Conservation Corp 6. National Labor Relations Board
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WWII
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1939-45 Over Hitler’s invasion of Europe between the Allies and Axis
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Causes of WWII
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1. Sections on Germany left them devastated 2. Germany, Italy and Japan were led by dictators who wanted to conquer more land 3. Holocaust
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Results of WWII
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1. Japan formed a democratic state 2. Germany was divided to East and West 3. The UN was founded
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Winston Churchill
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British leader who took a strong stance against Hitler
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The Korean War
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1950-53 – At the end of WWII Korea was divided and the U.S. provided aid to South Korea
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Causes of The Korean War
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1. North Korea attempted to take over the south 2. UN demanded a withdrawal, but it was refused 3. UN sent troops to support South Korea
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Results of the Korean War
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1. Cease fire signed in North Korea in 1953 2. No winner
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The Vietnam War
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1957-75 – Fight between Communist north and democratic south with U.S. on the south side
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Causes of the Vietnam War
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1. North wanted to take over South 2. U.S. wanted to stop communism spread
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Results of Vietnam War
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1. Vietnam was united under the communist North 2. Nearly a million refugees came to U.S.
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The Civil Rights Movement
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1954-68
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March on Washington
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1963
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The Persian Gulf War
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1991 – U.S. went to war with Iraq over their invasion of Kuwait
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Causes of The Persian Gulf War
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1. Iraq wanted control over Kuwait’s oil fields 2. Iraq considered Kuwait part of them 3. Hussein wanted control over the Muslim World
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Results of the Persian Gulf War
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1. Iraq was defeated, but Hussein remained in power 2. Iraq economic hardship due to trade sanctions 3. Cease-Fire allowed for UN inspections for WMDs
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Functional Regions
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Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area).
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Aquifer
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A body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater and lie under most of Texas’ land
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Basin
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Bow shaped land area surrounded by higher land
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Bay
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A body of water that is partially enclosed by land (is usually smaller than a gulf)
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Cape
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Point of land that extends into water
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Cataract
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Large waterfall
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Channel
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Deepest part of a body of water
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Coastal Plain
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Flat land along an ocean or sea
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Delta
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Triangle shaped area of land at the mouth of a river
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Escarpment
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A steep cliff
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Fall Line
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Where rivers for water falls and rapids as the water drops to lower land
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Floodplain
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A low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
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Inlet
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an area of water from a larger body of water that extends inland
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Isthmus
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A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
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Penisula
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land surrounded by water on three sides
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Mesa
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Steep, flat topped mountain
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Strait
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narrow body of water connecting two larger bodies
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Land formations of Texas
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1. Mountains and Basins (West) 2. High Plains (Northern) 3. Central Plains 4. Coastal Plains (East and South)
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Atmosphere
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A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.
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Lithosphere
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A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
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Biosphere
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Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
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Free Enterprise System
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1. People can own and run their own business 2. Government has little control over businesses 3. Citizens have the right to own resources 4. Citizens can hire each other
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Texas Economy
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1. One of the fastest growing in the nation 2. Tourism is biggest industry 3. Industry depends on natural resources 4. Has many exports
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Capital Goods
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Goods or equipment needed by businesses to produce other goods. Factories, computers, big machines, etc.

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