Test 4

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Four categories of membership organizations
• Professional associations
o Members of a profession or skilled craft organize for mutual benefit
• Trade groups
o Consists of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, or distributers in the same field.
• Labor unions
o Represent the interests of an entire industry
• Chambers of commerce
o Serve as boosters of local business growth
Give examples of advocacy groups
• Greenpeace, PETA, NRA, AFA
5 tactics of advocacy groups
• Lobbying, Litigation, Mass Demonstrations, Boycotts, Reconciliation, Fund-Raising
three categories of social service organizations
• Foundations
o Started when money to established a foundation is provided by a wealthy individual or family. Hundreds of tax free foundations In the US constitute about 9% of total charitable giving
• Cultural Groups
o Generating interest and participation in the cultural aspects of life
• Religious groups
o Churches distribute charity, conduct personal guidance programs, provide leadership on moral and ethical issues in their communities, and operate social centers where diverse groups gather.
5 tactics of social service organizations
• publicity
• creation of events
• use of services
• creation of educational materials
• newsletters
two types of health agencies
• Hospitals
• Health Agencies
o Provide health care
primary roles of hospital PR staff
• To strengthen and maintain the publics perception of the institution as a place where medical skill, compassion, and efficiency are paramount
• To help market the hospitals array of services such a surgery and cancer treatment
Describe the functions of a college or university news bureau and/or public relations program
• News bureau produces hundreds of news releases, photographs, and special columns and articles for the print media in addition to other activities
Who are the primary publics of a university? Identify the 6 publics of a university program.
• Faculty and Staff
• Students
• Alumni and other doners
• The community
• Prospective students
• Government
Thoroughly describe each of the eight fund raising methods described in the text.
• Corporate and foundation donations
o PR professionals implement different types on campaigns for find-raising efforts, they seek for donations by going to local corporate offices or sales outlets
• Structures capital campaigns
o Effort to raise major amounts of money for a new wing of a hospital
• Direct Mail
o Mailing an envelope with a return envelope with a donation card
• Event Sponsorship
o Philanthropic organization can sponsor to raise funds is limited only by the imagination of its members
• Television Solicitations
o TV sets aside a block of airtime for a telethon sponsored by a philanthropic organization
• Telephone solicitations
• Endorsements and Tie-Ins
o Some nonprofit organizations fo into business on their own to make or make tie ins with commercial firms from which they earn a profit
• Online and Social Media
1) Why are meetings and events vital public relations tools even in the digital age of texting?
a. They let the audience participate face-to-face. Even with all the technology and ease of communication we have today, there is still a basic human need to gather, socialize, and be part of a group activity.
b. Face to face is still important
2) Name at least 4 factors that must be considered in planning meetings for a group
3) What info should be provided to the invited speaker for an event?
a. Info about the meeting sponsor and attendees
b. Meeting purpose and objectives
c. Presentation location, including meeting room date and hour
d. Topic and length of presentation
e. Anticipated size of the audience
f. Session format, including length of time allowed for questions
g. Names of those sharing the platform, if any, and their topics
h. Name of person who will make the introductions
i. Speaker fee or honorarium
j. Travel and housing arrangements
k. Meeting room setup and staging info
l. Audiovisual equipment needed
m. Dress code
n. Handout material requested
o. Signed release for organization to tape or videotape the remarks
p. Arrangements for spouse, if invited
– Purpose
– Nature of the audience- size – characteristics
– Arrangements
how long should a speaker speak at a luncheon or a dinner series
a. 20-30 minutes max, after that the audience becomes restless and bored.
variety of items that must be budgeted in planning a banquet
a. Food
b. Room Rental
c. Bartenders
d. Decoration and table centerpieces
e. Audiovisual requirements
f. Speaker fees
g. Entertainment
h. Photographers
i. Invites
j. Tickets
k. Marketing promotion
6) What is the recommended length of time for a reception or cocktail party?
2 hours
7) What questions should you ask a catering manager when planning an event?
a. How many bartenders are needed?
b. How will the beverages be billed
– Menus, facilities, space
8) What logistics must be considered when planning an open house or a plant tour?
a. Day and Hour
b. Guests
c. Publicity and invites
d. Vehicles (parking)
e. Reception
f. Focal point of activity
g. Restrooms
h. Safety
i. Routing
j. Guides
k. Explanation
l. Housekeeping and attire
m. Emergencies
9) What are the components of planning a convention?
a. Timing
b. Location
c. Facilities
d. Exhibits
e. Program
f. Recreation
g. Attendance
h. Administration
11) What are the pros and cons of using a celebrity as a part of a promotional event
a. Pros:
i. Celebrities raise interest and attendance
ii. They are listened to more thoroughly
iii. Increased chance of publicity
– Increased attendance/media coverage
– Major budget issue/dealing with the celebrity
b. Cons:
i. Can be very pricey
ii. May not be very liked by audience members
iii. Demographics may not match
– Pros: Increased attendance/media coverage
-Cons: Major budget issue/dealing with the celebrity
12) Why is it important to consider security and liability issues for a promotional event?
a. Traffic flow, adequate signage, restroom facilities, security. Liability insurance is a necessity as well. Any public event sponsored by an organization should be insured. Permits may be needed and obtained if you are holding the event in a public area such as a street or park. It is important to avoid all possible lawsuits.
– Professionally trained security, Liability insurance necessary
1. Why should public relations personnel consider radio and tv as a major tool in reaching the public?
a. They reach a vast majority of the population on a daily basis. The content has expanded to other digital platforms, broadcast media generate larger audience for smartphones, described as an inherently lazy form of entertainment.
3. How does an audio news release (ANR) differ from a standard news release?
a. Radio news release is written for the ear with strong, short sentences that average about 10 words and can be easily understood
b. Is more concise and to the point
c. Writing style
5. What is a public service announcement (PSA)?
An unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves public interest
6. What is the advantage of a radio media tour (RMT) or a satellite media tour (SMT) to the organization and journalist?
a. RMT-Spokesperson conducts series of interviews with raido announcers
b. SMT- pre-booked and series of tv
7. What are some guidelines for a successful SMT?
a. Spokes person available at a designated time
b. Use celebrities and experts
c. Food Q&A with anchor
8. List four ways that an organization can get its news and viewpoints on local television?
a. Send a standard news release
b. Send a media alert or advisory informing the assignment editor about a particular event or occasion that would lend itself to video coverage
c. Make a pitch by phone or e-mail to the assignment editor to have the station do a particular story.
d. Produce a video news release package that, like an ANR, us formatted for immediate use, with a minimum of effort by station personnel
9. What are the format and characteristics of a video news release (VNR)?
a. 90 seconds new report with voiceover narration on an audio channel separate from that containing sound bites and natural sound
b. A b-roll. This is a video only, without narration, giving a TV station maximum flexibility to add its own narration or use just a portion of the video as part of a news segment
c. Clear identification of the video source
d. Script, spokesperson information, media contacts, extra sound bites, and story background information provided electronically
11. Whats a news feed, and how is it used in public relations?
a. That provides video and sound bites of an event to TV stations across the country via satellite or through webcasts. The news release may be live from the event as it is taking place or it could be video shot at the event and edited and made available for package
12. What makes an ideal radio or television talk show guest/spokesperson?
a. Preparation- guest should know what key message should be emphasized
b. Concise speech- guest should answer questions and make statements precisely and briefly. They shouldn’t hold forth in excessive detail or drag in extraneous material. Responses should be kept to 30 seconds or less
c. Relaxation- mike fright- is a common aliment for which no automatic cure exists. It will diminish, however, if the guest concentrates on talking to the interviewer in a casual, person to person manner and forgets the audience as much as possible
1. What is the basic purpose of a news release?
• Traditional media rely on news releases for two reasons.
o The reality of mass communications is that reporters and editors spend most of their time processing information, not gathering it.
o Second, no media enterprise has enough staff to cover every single event in the community. Due to this, a lot of the more routine news in a newspaper is processed from news releases written by PR practitioners. Ready to publish right then.
2. What are the basic components of an online news release?
• Use single spacing
• 200 words or less
• use inverted pyramid
• top line should give the name of the organization or logo
• second line should give the date
• third line should be the headline in boldface with a slightly larger font than the text (should use key words 20 words or less),
• provide the city of origination at the start of the lead paragraph,
• write a succinct lead of only two or three sentences that gives the essence of the news release,
• use a pull quote as part of the news release (significant quote),
• provide links in the news release so that readers can easily click on sites that provide related information,
• the last paragraph should provide basic information about the organization,
• the news release should end with the name, telephone number, and email address of the PR contact person so that a reporter or blogger can easily contact him or her for more information.
• Double check all info, localize the story, AP style, concise, avoid fancy phrases and jargon.
3. What are the characteristics of a multimedia news release?
• Allow for news releases to be embedded with high-resolution photos/graphics,
• video and audio components.
• Includes links to pages where the multiple instances of your key words/phrases reinforce your message,
• place terms in key positions like headlines and first paragraphs,
• distribute a release through a service that carries hyperlinks to downstream sites such as yahoo finance, AOL News, and Netscape.
• Don’t go link crazy, use low-resolution images, and don’t use all the tools all the time.
4. What is SEO and why is it important?
• Search engine optimization.
• The process of carefully selecting key words for the news releases that makes the content easily retrievable.
• For example, a food company may want to use the term agricultural biotechnology in a news release as opposed to genetic modification but people will be more likely to use the latter term in a search and will thus completely miss the company’s news release.
• A search engine looks for certain terms in a document to help it understands how to classify or categorize the content in terms of title, tags, summaries and hyperlinks.
5. Why is it a good idea to include a photograph with a news release? What are the six aspects of a good publicity photo?
• Studies show that more people “read” photographs than they read articles.
• The Advertising Research Foundation found that three to four times as many people notice the average one-column photograph as read the average news story.
• Quality-photos must have good contrast and sharp detail so they don’t turn out grainy,
• Subject matter- “grip and grin photos and large group photos,
• composition- tight shots with minimum background, emphasize detail and have limited wasting space,
• action- shots of people doing something,
• scale,
• camera angle- interesting angles make photos more interesting an compelling, lighting, and color.
6. What is a mat release? How is it different from a regular new release?
• The concept is geared toward providing helpful consumer information and tips about variety of subjects in an information way with only a brief mention of the nonprofit or corporation that has distributed the release via firms such as Family Features.
• Mat releases are a little different from the traditional news release because a feature angle is used instead of a lead that gives a key message. They also are in the format of a standing column headline like Healthy Eating or Cooking Corner.
7. What’s the difference between a media advisory and a fact sheet?
• A media advisory is when PR staff sends a memo to reporters and editors about a news conference or upcoming event that they may wish to cover.
• These memos are also used to let the media know about an interview opportunity with a visiting dignitary or celebrity, or what photo and video possibilities are available.
• Media advisories are short bulleted item rather than long paragraphs.
• A summary fact sheet details the characteristics of a new product that serves as a quick reference for a journalist writing a story.
• Example: Philips Norelco’s new body groom shaver. Product fact sheets are often distributed as part of a media kit or with a news release to give supplemental information about a new product
8. What’s a media kit? What does a media kit typically contain?
• Media kits are usually prepared for major events and new product launches and their purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information that makes it easier for the reporter to write about the topic.
• News releases and publicity are often included in a media kit.
• A media kit usually consist of a 9X12 folder with inside pockets, the contents are: a basic news release, a news feature about the product or service, a fact sheet about the product, organization, or event, photos, bios on the spokesperson or chief executives, a basic brochure, and contact information such as email addresses, phone numbers and website URLs.
9. What is a pitch letter?
• Getting your news release noticed.
• Pitching uses buzzwords like engagement and building relationships with journalists.
• The objective is to contact journalists and bloggers on a one-to one basis and convince them that you have a newsworthy story or idea.
10. What are the capabilities of an electronic news service?
• The majority organizations use electronic news services to distribute news releases, photos and advisories.
• Two major newswires are Business Wire and PR Newswire; each organization transmits about 20,000 news releases monthly to daily newspapers, broadcast stations, ethnic media, financial networks and online news services.
• No paper is involved; the release are automatically entered into the appropriate databases and search engines, which can be accessed not only by editors and reporters throughout the world but also by the general public.
11. What are the characteristics of an online newsroom
• A good online newsroom should have current and archived news releases,
• the names,
• phone numbers and direct email addresses of PR contacts, photographs,
• product information
• and opportunity for journalists to sign up for a daily feed if they regularly cover that particular company or industry
12. How should you prepare for a media interview?
• The PR person should obtain from the interviewer an understanding of the interviews purpose.
• Armed with this information the practitioner can assemble facts and data for the client to use in the discussion.
• The practitioner also can aid the client by providing tips about the interviewers style.
13. What are the mechanics of organizing a news conference?
• Select a convenient location,
• set the date and time,
• distribute a media advisory about the upcoming news conference when appropriate,
• write a statement for the spokesperson to give at the conference and make sure that he or she understands and rehearses it,
• try to anticipate questions so that the spokesperson can readily answer difficult queries,
• prepare a media kit,
• prepare visual materials as necessary,
• make advance arrangements for the room,
• arrive 30 to 60 minutes early to double check arrangements
14. What’s the difference between a media tour and a press party?
• There are three kinds of media tours.
• The most common is a trip or junket. Editors and reporters are invited to inspect a company’s manufacturing facilities in several cities, ride an inaugural flight of a new air route, or watch previews of the television network programs for the fall season in Hollywood or New York.
• There is also a familiarization trip. These are offered to travel writers and editors by the tourism industry. Convention and visitor bureaus as well as major resorts, pay all expenses in the hope that writers will report favorably on their experiences.
• The third kind of media tour, which is widely used in high technology industries, the organizations executives travel to key cities to talk with, selected editors. Press parties can be a luncheon, dinner or a cocktail party. The standard practice is for the host to rise at the end of the socializing period and make the pitch. This may be the launch of a new product, a brief policy statement followed by a question and answer period or merely a soft sell thank you to the guests for coming and giving the host an opportunity to know them better. Guests usually are given press packets of information either when they arrive or as they leave.

• Media tours are junkets offered to the media

• Press parties are luncheons, dinners, cocktails

1) In what ways has the internet completely revolutionized a media system that goes back to Gutenberg in the 1400’s?
a. Mass media had the concepts of being centralized/top-down, costly in terms of being published, staffed by professional gatekeepers known as editors and publishers, and mostly a one-way form of communication with limited feedback channels. Now the internet has created 2 spheres of influence. One being the blogosphere and the other being the mediasphere. The new media systems has the characteristics of widespread broadband, cheap//free easy to use online publishing tools, new distribution channels, mobile devices such as camera phones, and new advertising paradigms.
2) What are some statistics that show how pervasive the internet has become in today’s global society? (List 8)
a. There are now about 10,000 podcasts available, and the audience is projected to be about 70 million by 2012
b. YouTube has more than 1 billion views per day, and 24 hours of videos are being uploaded every minute
c. Twitter has more than 100 million registered users, and about 300,00 new users sign up each day
d. Facebook has more than 500 million active users worldwide and Myspace has about 125 million
e. There are an estimated 135 million blogs, and 346 million people around the world read blogs on a regular basis
f. The World Wide Web has about 63 billion pages, and there are more than 100 million websites
g. E-mail is used by 95% of internet users. The average number of E-mails received per person is about 13,500 annually
h. Google, the most popular search engine in the US, handles about 10 billion search queries a month. The average American visits about 115 domains and 2,500 pages in an average month
3) What are some characteristics of the web that make it possible for public relations people to do a better job of distributing information?
a. Info can be uploaded quickly without having to reprint brochures and other materials. This is an important factor when it comes to major news events and dealing with a crisis
b. It allows interactivity; viewers can ask questions about products or services, download info of value to them, and let the organization know about what they think
c. Online readers can dig deeper into subject that interests them by linking to info provided on other sites, in other articles, and in other sources
d. A great amount of material can be posted. There is no space or time limitation.
e. It is a cost effective way to disseminate info on a global basis to public and journalists
f. You can reach niche markets and audiences directly without messages being filtered through traditional mass media gatekeepers (editors)
g. The media and other users can access details about your organization 24 hours a day from anywhere in the world
4) Why is it important for an organization to have a website?
a. Organizations use their website for marketing products, post news releases, corporate backgrounders, product info, position papers, and even photos of key executive or plant locations. Companies should remember that a website is the one and only place they can tell their story in their own words; this is not possible to do on social media.
5) One example of web interactivity is the “pull” and “push” concepts. What is the difference between the 2?
a. Pull: user “pulls” relevant info from websites
b. Push: info is “pushed” on the user of the web
6) How can a website save organization money?
a. The organization will draw more customers with a website. Whether it is because they did a search for the organization, the website is interactive, or they followed a link from an ad to get there, the website is exposing the organization to thousands if not millions
7) How can webcasts be used by various organizations?
a. Webcasts can be used for news conferences, interactive tests, or live events on a campus or in an organization. The audience isn’t large, but the cost and effort is definitely worth the publicity.
8) What is the major difference between the first generation of the internet, web 1.0, and the second generation of the internet, web 2.0?
a. Web 1.0 was primarily based on info being sent from supplier to receiver. Web 2.0 has become and interactive model in which web users now have multiple tools to talk to each other I real time.
9) What are some variations of “social media”?
a. Blogs, Myspace, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, podcasts, wikis
10) In what ways does a corporate blog differ from an organizations website?
a. The blog is an easier way for the organization to communicate what is happening within the organization. Websites are great for information, but the format of blogs makes it ideal for the company to talk about itself and self promote
11) What are some guidelines for employee blogs?
a. Be transparent about any former, current or prospective clients being mentioned in the blog
b. Respond n a timely manner to individuals who post comments – pro, con, or indifferent
c. Generate as much original material as possible instead of just commenting on current news events
d. Link only to blog sites that are relevant to your post
e. Make sure readers know that the blog represents your views and not necessarily those of your employer or client
12) How can Facebook be used in corporate public relations strategy?
a. Gaining customer insights
b. Building brand awareness
c. Creating customer loyalty
13) What should an organization consider if it is thinking about producing a YouTube video?
a. Be aware of the vast differences in your audience demographic. Many things can be considered offensive, like In Dominoes case. (sandwich made with no health standards video)
14) How can organizations effectively use texting and Wikis?
a. To reach employees, customers, and key publics. They can use tools such as broadcast texts, subscription texts, or the “one-off” where the cell phone user can send a text message to a source to get an answer to a question.
15) What’s the difference between “tweeting” and texting?
a. Twitter is web based and the tweeter is tweeting for everyone in their friends to see it while texting is a cellular capability and is usually more personal and goes directly to one or more intended recipient.
16) What makes a good podcast?
a. Keep it less than 15 minutes
b. Use several stories or segments
c. Don’t use a script
d. Create an RSS feed
e. Produce new podcasts on a weekly basis
17) What role will smartphones lay in web 3.0, the next generation of the internet?
a. Phones have become portable computers as powerful as some full sized desktops. They can use the internet like any other PC and apps are changing the usability of the internet in new ways.
b. Mini computers
There is a decline is the support for education by the government.
. Long letters are OK in solicitations
Writing for a second gift is ok.
In bond elections governmental bodies should use citizens to lead the campaign
What percentage of stories in a newspaper come from news releases?
Interview stories for public relations purposes should be approved by the interviewe
The most visible public relations unit at a University is the Publications bureau.
In a capital campaign you first survey to determine the level of support you have
Volunteer service agencies have had their workload increased due to the cutback of government welfare.
What is a pitch letter
• Getting your news release noticed.
• Pitching uses buzzwords like engagement and building relationships with journalists.
• The objective is to contact journalists and bloggers on a one-to one basis and convince them that you have a newsworthy story or idea.
What is a PSA?
a. An unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of government or voluntary agencies or that serves public interest
What is a blog?
A blog is an easier way for the organization to communication what is happening within the organization. (employee blogs) be transparent about any former current or prospective client being mentioned in the blog. Blog: originally called weblogs because they were websites maintained by individuals who wanted to post their commentary and opinions on various topics.
What is a B-roll?
a. Contains additional sound bites and video that TV news staff can use for packaging the story. Packages provide plenty of video files and sound bites. But are not formally scripted into a complete story. This allows tv news staff to easily pick and choose material to produce their own stories
What is a satellite media tour?
An SMT is a series of prebooked, one-on-one interviews from the fixed location (usually a tv studio) via satellite with a series of tv journalist or talk show hosts. Interviewing ceos at convience, journalist can personally interview ceos
What is the first thing you should make sure of before conducting a news conference?
“Should we hold a news conference or not?” Public relations specialist should realistically asses whether the information can just as effectively be disturbed through a news release or media kit
What percentage of stories in a newspaper come from news releases
What is an annual report?
An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company’s activities throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people information about the company’s activities and financial performance.
What is a sound bite?
a short extract from a recorded interview, chosen for its pungency or appropriateness.
Are face-to-face meetings important today?
Yes very important because it’s a basic human need to socialize and communicate face to face.
How long should a cocktail party last
90 minutes max but the book says about 2 hours
What are the advantages of using a celebrity for a promotional event?
More people go to the event

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