test 1 – Chemistry Flashcard

Technology
applied science
Research
basic science
Poison
inorganic chemical substance taht can cause illness or death
Toxin
organic chemical substance taht can cause illness or death
LD50
Lethal Dose or amount of substance that can kill halff the population in a week
GRAS
generally recongnized as safe
Grecian view
earth, fire, air and water
Democraties
believed that matter could not be continually subdivided
Time line of Alchemy
100Bc-1600AD
Alchemist .
believed matter could be changed from one form to another
Alchemist goals
metal-gold, philosophers stone, elixir of life
Corpuscular theory
atoms were the basic form of matter
Robert Boyle
wrote “the sceptical chemist”
Scientific method
general process involving experimentation and explanation of facts
Sigfigs
digits that express info that is reasonably reliable/#’s taken from measurements
Accuracy
concept, that involves the closeness of msurmnts to an actual dimension
Precision
a concept relating to the refinement or detail of a measurement
Exact numbers
numbers with no uncertain digits
Density
mass per unit volume of a substance or object
Density equation
D=M/V
Specific gravity
the ration of the mass of any substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same condition.
Temp
measure of hot/cold matter
Heat
a measure of the kinetic energy of moving particles. It measures the quantity of energy not the intensity.
Calorie
amount of heat required to reaise the temp of 1g of water 1degree
Specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1g of any substance 1degree C
Mass
measure of quantity of matter
Weight
measure of force of gravity acting upon a particular mass
Nuclear fusion
energy of stars
Solid
definite shape and volume
Sublimation
conversion directly from solid to gas state
Liquid
definite volume indefinite shape
Viscosity
measure of the resistance of liquid to flow
Miscibility
ability of liquids to mix with one another to form a solution
Gas
no definite shape or volume
Diffusion
spontaneous mixing of gases at constant temp
Compression
ability to reduce volume in the presence of increased pressure
Plasma
composed of IONS
Extensive matter
property relating to the amount of matter present
Intensive
property relating to the particular form of matter present
Physical property
char. Of matter that identifies a substance w/p a change in chemical composition
Chemical char.
Matter relating to how a substance changes in compo. Or interacts with other substances.
Chemical change
a change that alters the chemical composition of a substance
Physical change
indicates a chemical change is taking place: flame, heat/light, gas, precipitate, color/odor.
Law of conservation of mass
mass can neither be destroyed or created
Pure substance
matter that has a defined and fixed composition
Elements
pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances with different properties by physical or chemical means
Atom
smallest part of element that still contains property
Compound
pure substance up of 2 or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass
Laws of definite composition
every compound is composed of elements in a certain fixed proportion of mass
Mixture combinations of two or more substance that can be separated by physical means
Homogenous mixture
uniform blend of two or more substances whose proportions can be varied
Heterogeneous
non-uniform blend of two or more substances
Energy
capacity to do work or transfer heat
Potential energy
energy an object possesses due to its position of a chemical composition
Kinetic energy
energy an object possesses due to its motion
Exothermic reaction
chemical reaction that releases energy
Endothermic reaction must absorb energy to proceed
Law of conservation of energy
in any chemical or physical change in energy is neither created or destroyed it’s simply converted from one to another
Law of conservation of M&E
the sum of all the mass and energy in the universe is constant
most abundent element in the universe
hydrogen
Char. of metals
luster, conducts heat and electr., malleable, ducile, react w/ non metals but no with metals, can be hard and soft and those on the left side of the periodic table tend to be more reactive then those on the right.
char. of non metals
no luster, not malleable or ductile, poor conductors of heat and electricity, react w/ metals and non metals, most are soft or gas.
The diatomic elements
H, O, N, F, Cl, Cr and I
Mealloids
has char. of metals and non metals (7)
Most elements are solids at…
room temp
elements that ar liquids at room temp…
Hg and Br2
Allotrope
different forms of an element in the same physical state
example of allotrope
carbon
Democritus
1st to theorize about atoms
Sennent
adavanced the cornpuscular theory
Boyle
advanced the idea of experimintation
Stahl
use philogsitin theory to explain cumbustion
scheele and priestly
discovered oxygen
Cavendish
developed a method for making precise quantitative measurements
Electrolysis
the decomposation of a substance by an electrc current
Lavosier
disproved the philogsitin theory and used oxygen to explain combustion
During a chemical Rxn, the total mass remaining is_______. Who theorized this?
constant and Lavoiser
each substance will require a certain amount of ____ to react with. Who theorized this?
02 and Lavoiser
law of conservation of mass was discovered by who?
Lavoiser
Further investigations, of Lavoisers experiments, by J. proust lead to the law of
Definite composition
Dalton
proposed theory of the atom based on all work done prior to 1800
Dalton had how many atomic theories?
seven
Daltns Law of Multiple proportions example
CO2 and CO
unlike charges _____ like charges ____
attract, repel
Crookes
developed the first cathode ray tube
Goldstien
discovered canal rays using the Catho ray tube
Wien
discovered canal ray mass Varied with gas used int the catho ray tube
Thompson
developed the ration of an electron to its mass
Millikan
measured the charge and mass of an indiv. electron.
Ruentgen
discobered the xraly using the CRT eminates from the anode
Becquerel and Curie
discovered Natural Radioactivity
Rutherford epmt 1
Discovered the different tpes of radioactivity
Rutherford
discovered the middlle of the atom and disproved thompsons plum pudding model of an atom. through the gold foil experiment
neulcear theory of the atom
named the center-neucleous
nucleous is very small in relaion to the entire aom
most of the mass is in the neucleous
electons are located ina large space around the neucleous.
J chadwick
proved the existance of the Neutron.

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