Technology in Action Chap 5 & 6

Flashcard maker : Jamie Hutchinson
Name the variety of operation systems.
Windows, Linux, UNIX, OS X
Windows
An operating system by Microsoft that incorporates a user-friendly, graphical interface.
Linux
An open-source operating system based on UNIX. Because of the stable nature of this operating system, it’s often used on web servers.
UNIX
An operating system originally conceived in 1979 by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie of AT&T”s Bell Labs.
What operating system is used by most supercomputers?
Linux
Which OS is most used on the following: Tablets
Android/IOS
Which OS is most used on the following: Smart phone
Android/IOS
Which OS is most used on the following: Desktops/Laptops
Windows
Name the commonality among: Command-driven, Menu driven and GUI
All user interfaces
Command driven
Interface between user and computer in which the user enters commands to communicate with the computer system.
Menu driven
A user interface in which the user chooses a command form menus displayed on the screen.
GUI (graphical user interface)
Unlike the command and menu driven interfaces used in earlier software, GUIs display graphics and use the point and click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user friendly.
What are the 4 steps in the boot process?
BIOS, POST, BIOS OS loaded into RAM, Config and customization settings are checked.
BIOS ( basic input/output system)
A program that manages the data between a computer’s operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the computer; also responsible for loading the operating system (OS) from its permanent location on the hard drive to random access memory (RAM).
POST (power on self test)
The first job the basic input/output system (BIOS) performs, ensuring that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational. This process consists of a test on the video card and video memory, a BIOS identification process (during which the BIOS version, manufacturer, and data are displayed on the monitor) and a memory test to ensure memory chips are working properly.
RAM
Random access memory, temporary storage
Where is Bios Stored?
ROM
ROM
Read Only Memory, permanent storage
Name the following extension: .docx
Word processing document, Microsoft word 2007 and later.
Name the following extension: .txt
Text, Any program that car read text documents.
Name the following extension: .jpg
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) image, Most programs capable of displaying images
Name the following extension: html
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) for a web page, Any program that can read HTML
Name the following extension: pdf
Portable Document Format, Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader.
Name the following extension: .pptx
Presentation, Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 and later
Name the following extension: .xlsx
Workbook, Microsoft Excel 2007 and later
Name the group of Windows utility programs and know the function of each.
Disk Defragmentor, Disk Cleanup, System Restore, Task Manager, File Compression.
Disk Defragmenting
A utility that regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive, enabling faster retrieval of the data.
Disk Cleanup
A Windows utility that removes unnecessary files from the hard drive.
System Restore
A utility in Windows that restores system settings to a specific previous date when everything was working properly.
Task Manager
A Windows utility that shows programs currently running and permits you to exit nonresponsive programs when you click End Task.
File Compression.
A program that takes out redundancies in a file in order to reduce the file size.
The C drive is sometimes known as this:
Root
Root directory
The top level of the filing structure in a computer system. In Windows computers, the root directory of the hard drive is represented as C:.
What type of operation system is used in a furnace thermostat, fuel injection engine?
Real time
Real time (RTOS)
A program with a specific purpose that must guarantee certain response times for particular computing tasks or else the machine’s application is useless. Real-time operating systems are found in many types of robotic equipment.
PnP Stands for:
Plug and Play
In Windows, what is the main tool for finding, viewing and managing files?
File Explorer
File Explorer
The main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file; called windows explorer prior to windows 8.
What contains an index to files that have been deleted or have been moved?
FAT (file allocation table)
FAT ( File allocation table)
An index of all sector numbers that the hard drive stores in a table to keep track of which sectors hold which file.
Can a PC have more than one operating system installed?
Yes
Operating System (OS)
The system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals and software.
What is the function of the OS?
Coordinates and directs flow of data and information through the computer system.
Platform
Combination of an OS and a specific processor
Swap File (page file)
Swapping data or instructions to a temporary storage area.
Device driver
Software that facilitates the communication between a device and its operating system or between a network adapter and a server’s operating system and the operating system of the computer in which the adapter in installed.
Plug and Play
Lets you plug a new device into computer and it be enabled once it is booted up
Thrashing
A condition of excessive paging in which the operating system becomes sluggish.
User Interface
Enable user to interact with computer.
API-Application Program Interface
Software needed to interact with CPU.
Boot process
Loads the OS into RAM
What are the characteristics of desktop?
A computer that’s intended for use at a single location, consist of a case that houses the main components of the computer, plus peripheral devices.
What are the characteristics of laptop?
A portable computer with a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case.
What are the characteristics of tablet?
A mobile computer, integrated into a flat multi-touch sensitive screen. It uses an virtual keyboard.
What is System Files?
Main file of OS.
What does kennel do?
Loads essential components of the OS. Responsible for managing the processor and all components.
Why should you check Registry?
Check for configuration of other system components.
Registry
Contains all various configurations used by OS and Apps
Authentication
Verification of login.
Hierarchical directory
A program by Windows that organizes the contents of your computer.
What does Hierarchical consist of?
Filesfolders, library, drives.
What are files?
Collection of program instructions or data that is stored and treated as a single unit.
What are folders?
A collection of files.
What is a library?
A gathering of files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder.
What is a command driven interface?
One in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system
What is menu driven interface?
One in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen.
What determines processing power?
Speed of motherboard
What is the function of CPU?
The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing; it is the largest and most important chip in the computer. The CPU controls all the functions performed by the computer’s other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions.
Operating system
Is your CPU.
Utility
Found on control panel.
Application software
is OS dependent
What are the four parts of the machine cycle?
Fetch, Decode, Execute, Store
What is the function of ALU?
An arithmetic logic unit is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations.
How many levels are there of Cache Memory?
3
Cache Memory
Small blocks of memory, located directly on and next to the central processing unit (CPU)
What is the function of Control Unit?
Is a component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that directs operation of the processor. It tell the computer’s memory, arithmetic/logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to a program’s instructions.
What is hyperthreading?
A technology that permits quicker processing of information by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished.
Which memory is volatile storage?
Temporary storage, such as in random access memory. When the power is off, the data is cleared out.
Volatile Storage
The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space.
Virtual memory
The space on the hard drive where the operating system stores data if there isn’t enough random access memory to hold all of the programs you currently trying to run.
RAM storage is Measured in ?
GB
How is access time in a hard drive measured?
Milliseconds
Explain the difference between Mechanical Hard Drive and Solid State Hard Drive?
Mechanical hard drive has a larger storage (4 TB), Solid state hard drive only has 2 GB.
Mechanical Hard Drive
Has the largest capacity of any storage device, storage exceeding 4 terabytes (B).
Solid State Hard Drive
A storage device that uses the same kind of memory that flash drives use but that can reach data in only a tenth of the time a flash drive requires.
Optical drives
Are disc drives that use a laser to store and read data
Know the types of optical disc and amount of storage of each DVD?
4.7 to 8.5 GB
Know the types of optical disc and amount of storage of each Blu-ray?
25 to 50 GB
Know the Types of optical disc and amount of storage of each CD?
700 MB
Which storage device has the largest capacity?
Mechanical hard drive
What is the purpose of the GPU?
Speeds up display of graphics
What is the purpose of the sound card?
Enables computer to drive the speaker system
What type of sound has the listener hearing the sound as if it were coming from all directions?
Surround sound
How fast is hard drive storage space growing?
50% each year
Is Surround sound and 3-D sound are the same thing?
3-D enables sound in three dimensional sound and surround comes from all directions.
3-D sound
An expansion card that enables a computer to produce omnidirectional or three dimensional sounds.
Surround sound
A type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sound as if it were coming from all directions.
Spooler
A program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer
Utility Program
Is a small program that performs may of the general housekeeping tasks for your computer.

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