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1. To discard an old computer safely, put it in a landfill.
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2. Application software serves as the interface between the user, the system software, and the computer hardware.
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3. Programmers develop programs or write the instructions that direct the computer to process data into information.
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4. The distinction among categories of computers is always clear-cut.
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5. With weights that exceed 100 tons, desktop computers can store more than 20,000 times the data and information than an average supercomputer.
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6. Examples of mobile users include engineers, scientists, architects, desktop publishers, and graphic artists.
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7. Software used by power users usually is inexpensive because of its generic design.
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8. Nearly every area of health care uses computers.
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9. An exciting development in health care is telemedicine, which is a form of long-distance health care.
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10. Breakthroughs in surgery, medicine, and treatments seldom result from scientists’ use of computers.
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11. The capability of the computer to recognize spoken words is a direct result of scientific experimentation with cochlear implants.
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12. Cameras small enough to swallow — sometimes called a cochlear implant — take pictures inside your body.
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13. A satellite modem provides Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.
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14. To help minimize errors, most current browsers and Web sites do not require the http:// and www portions of a Web address.
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15. When a Web address is entered, a user sends, or pushes, information to a Web server.
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16. Text links may be underlined and/or displayed in a color different from other text on the Web page.
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17. The two most commonly used search tools are subject directories and keywords.
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18. JPEG is a format that expands graphics to increase their file size, which means the file takes up less storage space.
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19. The more compressed the graphics file, the smaller the image and the lower the quality.
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20. Smaller file sizes result in slower downloading of Web pages because small files transmit slower than large files.
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21. Some people use the term m-commerce (mobile commerce) to identify e-commerce that takes place using mobile devices.
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22. Businesses seldom provide goods or services to other businesses, so little e-commerce takes place between businesses.
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23. When a user sends an e-mail message, an outgoing mail server that is operated by the user’s Internet access provider determines how to route the message through the Internet and then sends the message.
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24. Newsgroup members frequently post articles as a reply to another article — either to answer a question or to comment on material in the original article.
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25. To start a chat session, you connect to a chat server through a program called instant messenger.
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26. According to netiquette, Internet users should assume all material is accurate and up-to-date.
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27. To use application software, a computer must be running system software, specifically, an operating system.
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28. Word processing software usually includes public-domain clip art.
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29. The spelling checker included with word processing software compares words in a document with an electronic dictionary that is part of the operating system.
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30. Spreadsheet software is a rarely used type of application software.
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31. One of the more powerful features of spreadsheet software is its capability of recalculating the rest of the worksheet when data in a worksheet changes.
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32. Presentation graphics software provides a variety of layouts for each individual slide.
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33. With a PIM, users can take information previously tracked in a weekly or daily calendar and organize and store it on their computer.
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34. The cost of accounting software for a small business can be several hundred thousand dollars.
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35. Although most word processing programs have none of the capabilities of DTP software, professional designers and graphic artists use word processing software because it supports page layout.
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36. Application software, such as Word and Excel, seldom include Web page authoring features.
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37. The programs in software suites for personal use usually can be purchased individually.
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38. Most personal finance software offers a variety of online services, which require access to the Internet.
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39. Personal DTP programs typically guide users through the development of a document by asking a series of questions, offering numerous predefined layouts, and providing standard text that can be added to documents.
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40. Educational software exists for very few subjects.
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41. A file compression utility identifies and fixes operating system and disk problems.
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42. The electronic components and circuitry of the system unit, such as the processor and memory, usually are part of or are connected to a circuit board called the fatherboard.
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43. On a personal computer, the various functions performed by the processor extend over many separate chips and often multiple circuit boards.
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44. The system clock is one of the factors that influences a computer’s performance.
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45. Most processors have built-in instructions to improve the performance of multimedia and 3-D graphics.
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46. If buyers purchase an IBM-compatible PC, they will choose an Intel or Intel-compatible processor.
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47. Some heat sinks are packaged as part of a processor chip.
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48. Some applications draw on the idle time of home users’ personal computers to achieve parallel processing.
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49. If a memory chip can store 100 KB, it can hold approximately 100,000 bytes.
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50. The processor interprets and executes a program’s instructions while the program is in RAM.
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51. Two types of cache are memory cache and disk cache.
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52. When the processor needs an instruction or data, it searches memory in this order: L1 cache, then L2 cache, then L3 cache (if it exists), then RAM — with a greater delay in processing for each level it must search.
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53. Most computers use flash memory to hold their startup instructions because it allows the computer easily to update its contents.
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54. Although some PC Cards contain tiny hard disks, many PC Cards are a type of flash memory card.
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55. A system unit with a MIDI port has the capability of recording sounds that have been created by a synthesizer and then processing the sounds (the data) to create new sounds.
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56. The data bus transfers information about where the data should reside in memory, and the address bus transfers actual data.
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57. The larger the number of bits handled by the bus, the slower the computer transfers data.
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58. A notebook computer usually is less expensive than a desktop computer with the same capabilities because it is less costly to miniaturize the components.
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59. Data consists of the steps that tell a computer how to perform a particular task.
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60. Even keyboards that are not ergonomically designed attempt to offer the user more comfort by including a wrist rest or palm rest.
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61. Some users prefer a wireless mouse because it frees up desk space and eliminates the clutter of a cord.
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62. As a user moves a mouse, the pointer on the screen also moves.
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63. Windows users work with a mouse that has only one button.
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64. To move the pointer using a pointing stick, push the pointing stick with a finger.
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65. A pointing stick requires additional desk space.
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66. Because they require little arm movements, users enter large amounts of data into touch screens.
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67. Many handheld game consoles have touch screens.
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68. When drawing on a graphics tablet with a pen or cursor, the tablet detects and converts the movements into digital signals that are sent in a computer.
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69. Digital pens that have built-in digital cameras work differently from pressure-sensitive digital pens.
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70. Some PDAs have a built-in mini keyboard.
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71. Because most smart phones include PDA capabilities, input devices used with PDAs typically also are available for smart phones.
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72. Enhanced resolution usually is lower than optical resolution because it uses a special formula to eliminate pixels from those generated by the optical resolution.
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73. Most new computers are equipped with a video capture card because all users have the need for this type of adapter card.
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74. With a test, an OMR device first scans the answer key to record correct answers based on patterns of light, then scans the remaining documents and matches their patterns of light against the answer key sheet.
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75. Exposure to a magnet or magnetic field can erase the contents of a card’s magnetic stripe.
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76. When a bank receives a check for payment, it uses an OCR inscriber to print the amount of the check in OCR characters in the lower-right corner.
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77. Computers process information (output) into data (input).
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78. Most mobile computers and devices separate the display and other components into a different physical case.
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79. The lower the time in milliseconds it takes to turn a pixel on or off on an LCD monitor, the slower the response time.
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80. Several video standards have been developed to define the resolution, number of colors, and other display properties.
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81. The best analog televisions have a resolution of only 1920 x 1080 pixels.
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82. With game consoles, the output device often is a television.
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83. An LCD monitor produces more heat and uses more power than a CRT monitor.
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84. To minimize eye fatigue, use a CRT monitor with a dot pitch of 29 millimeters or higher.
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85. Ink-jet printers produce text and graphics in both black-and-white and color on a variety of paper types.
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86. Most ink-jet printers have at least two print cartridges: one containing black ink and the other(s) containing colors.
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87. The number of pages a single ink-jet cartridge can print varies by manufacturer and the type of documents being printed.
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88. Laser printers for large business users print less than 15 ppm (pages per minute).
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89. When printing a document, laser printers process and store the entire page before they actually print it.
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90. Some mobile printers have a built-in wireless port through which they communicate with a computer wirelessly.
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91. Impact printers are noisy because a mechanism strikes against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper.
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92. Impact printers are unsuitable for printing multipart forms because they cannot print through layers of paper.
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93. Like a band printer, a shuttle-matrix printer prints characters in only one font and size.
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94. Voice output never works with voice input.
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95. A stand-alone fax machine scans an original document, converts the image into digitized data, and transmits the digitized image.
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96. Some data projectors are large devices that attach to a ceiling or wall in an auditorium.
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97. An LCD projector uses tiny mirrors to reflect light, which produces crisp, bright, colorful images that remain in focus and can be seen clearly even in a well-lit room.
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98. A digital light processing (DLP) projector, which uses liquid crystal display technology, attaches directly to a computer, and uses its own light source to display the information shown on the computer on the screen.
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99. Hearing-impaired users can instruct programs to display words instead of sounds.
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100. When a user issues a command to start application software, the operating system locates the program in memory and loads it into storage.
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101. When storage devices read data from storage media, they function as a source of output.
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102. On a magnetic disk, a sector typically stores up to 24 bytes of data.
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103. Current personal computer hard disks typically have storage capacities of less than 20 GB.
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104. A hard disk’s platters typically continue to spin even after power is removed from the computer.
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105. A hard disk platter’s spinning motion creates a cushion of air above the read/write head, which ensures that the read/write head makes contact with the platter surface instead of floating above the platter.
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106. Depending on the type of hard disk, transfer rates normally range from 2 MBps to 8 MBps.
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107. Removable hard disks have storage capacities up to 500 GB.
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108. The average time it takes a current floppy disk drive to locate an item on disk (access time) is 84 seconds, or approximately 1.4 minutes.
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109. To meet their large-scale needs, enterprises use special hardware geared for heavy use.
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110. On an optical disc, a land absorbs light, which is read as binary digit 0, and pits cause light to reflect, which is read as binary digit 1.
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111. Optical discs should be stored in a flat (horizontal) position.
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112. Because audio CDs and CD-ROMs use different laser technologies, a CD-ROM drive cannot be used to listen to an audio CD while working on the computer.
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113. The speed of a CD-ROM drive has no affect on how fast it installs programs or accesses the disc.
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114. Most optical disc drives can read a Picture CD.
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115. A popular use of CD-RW and CD-R discs is to create audio CDs.
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116. All DVD-ROMs are single-sided.
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117. Although older computers used tape cartridges, today’s computers use reel-to-reel tape drives.
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118. Flash memory cards are quite inexpensive compared to other storage media.
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119. The type of flash memory card you have will determine the type of card reader/writer needed.
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120. The images stored on microfilm and microfiche are so large that they can be read without a microfilm or microfiche reader.
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121. When turning on a computer that has been powered off completely, users are performing a warm boot.
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122. Users today typically run multiple programs concurrently.
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123. When a computer is running multiple programs concurrently, the one in the background is the active program; that is, the one currently in use.
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124. When a computer is running multiple programs, the applications running but not currently in use are in the foreground.
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125. Because virtual memory is faster than RAM, users may notice the computer speeding up while it uses virtual memory.
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126. A multiuser operating system always processes jobs on a first-come, first-served basis.
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127. Some operating systems include a Web browser and an e-mail program, enabling users to begin accessing the Web and communicating with others as soon as they set up the Internet connections.
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128. Users with broadband Internet connections are less susceptible to attacks from a hacker.
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129. Fragmentation speeds up disk access and thus the performance of the entire computer.
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130. Ghosting is a severe problem with today’s displays.
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131. At its peak, DOS was a widely used operating system, with an estimated 70 million computers running it.
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132. Microsoft has continually updated its Windows operating system, incorporating new features and functions with each subsequent version.
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133. When programmers move application software from one UNIX version to another, they sometimes have to rewrite some of the programs.
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134. Through Windows Server System, programmers have the ability to use Web services, which are Web applications created with any programming language or any operating system to communicate and share data seamlessly.
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135. In addition to being a stand-alone operating system, UNIX also is a network operating system.
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136. Some devices with the Windows Mobile operating system support handwriting and voice input.
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137. A compressed file takes up more storage space than the original file.
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138. In a networked environment, each computer on the network has access to hardware on the network.
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139. The main differentiation among network classifications is whether they are wired or wireless.
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140. A MAN usually is managed by a consortium of users or by a single network provider that sells the service to the users.
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141. Although it can connect a larger number of computers, a client/server network typically provides an efficient means to connect 10 or fewer computers.
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142. To help reduce copyright infringement, today’s music-sharing services are free, and music files are made public as they travel across the Internet.
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143. Bus networks are unpopular on LANs because they are expensive and difficult to install.
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144. Star networks are difficult to install and maintain.
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145. Communication software usually is bundled with the operating system or purchased network devices.
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146. Nearly the entire telephone network today uses analog technology, with the exception of the final link from the local telephone company to a home, which is digital.
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147. The word, modem, is derived from the combination of the words, modulate, to convert into a digital signal and, demodulate, to convert a digital signal into an analog signal.
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148. Cable modems currently transfer data at speeds that are much slower than either a dial-up modem or ISDN.
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149. Wireless access points have high-quality antennas for optimal signals.
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150. Only small networks use routers.
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151. For any home user, the hardware and software of an Ethernet network is easy to configure.
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152. One of the more widely used transmission media for network cabling and telephone systems is twisted-pair cable.
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153. Data integrity is important because computers and people use information to make decisions and take actions.
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154. The data in a key field is common to all records.
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155. A field is a group of related files.
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156. Often it is difficult to access data stored in separate files in different departments.
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157. It often is easier and faster to develop programs that use the database approach.
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158. Data in a database is less vulnerable than data in file processing systems.
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159. Like a form, a report generator is used to maintain and retrieve data.
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160. A DBMS provides a variety of techniques to restore a database to a usable form in case it is damaged or destroyed.
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161. A hypermedia database contains text links to other types of documents.
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162. Whereas a relational database can store more than two dimensions, a multidimensional database is a two-dimensional table.
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163. A relational database typically processes and summarizes large numbers of records efficiently.
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164. A standard query language exists for multidimensional databases.
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165. Methods that guarantee a computer or network is safe from computer viruses, worms, and Trojan horses exist.
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166. Authentication verifies that an individual is a valid user.
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167. Biometric devices are losing popularity as a security precaution because they are an easily fooled method of identification and authentication.
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168. Hardware theft is the act of stealing computer equipment.
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169. Hardware theft and vandalism pose a serious threat to the home desktop computer user.
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170. Thieves often target notebook computers of company executives, so they can use the stolen computer to access confidential company information illegally.
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171. Some security systems for notebook computers shut down the computer and sound an alarm if the computer moves outside a specified distance.
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172. A corrupt individual stealing credit card numbers to make fraudulent purchases is an example of information theft.
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173. Most organizations use available software for encryption.
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174. Typically, the amount of protection offered by a surge protector is inversely proportional to its cost; that is, the more expensive, the more protection the protector offers.
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175. A standby UPS, sometimes called an offline UPS, runs constantly off the battery, which provides continuous protection.
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176. The National Photographers Association believes that allowing even the slightest alteration could lead to misrepresentations in photographs.
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177. Users can purchase a software program that selectively blocks cookies.
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178. Phishing is an unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
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179. Many businesses use spyware to limit employees’ Web access.
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180. Although eyestrain associated with CVS (computer vision syndrome) is not thought to be disruptive or unpleasant, it has serious long-term consequences.
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181. Computer addiction is an untreatable illness.
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182. The system development cycle should group activities or tasks into phases.
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183. The system development process should have standards clearly defined.
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184. It is crucial that everyone is aware of and agrees on any changes made to the project plan.
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185. A project that is feasible at one point of the system development cycle might become infeasible at a later point.
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186. Maintaining up-to-date documentation should be a one-time part of the system development cycle.
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187. The request for system services triggers the last phase in the system development cycle: support.
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188. Higher-level DFDs add detail and definition to the lower levels, similarly to zooming in on a computer screen.
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189. The project dictionary helps everyone keep track of the huge amount of details in a system.
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190. Each data item has an entry in the data dictionary section of the project dictionary.
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191. The last step in acquiring the necessary hardware and software is to identify all the hardware and software requirements of the new or modified system.
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192. After the systems analyst defines the technical requirements, the next step is to summarize these requirements for potential vendors.
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193. Some vendors will give a demonstration of the product(s) specified in a vendor proposal.
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194. The systems analyst may skip many of the activities in a detailed design when developing custom software.
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195. During input and output design, the inputs always are designed first because they help define the requirements for the outputs.
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196. The program development cycle is part of the implementation phase, which is part of the system development cycle.
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197. The advantage of the direct conversion strategy is that it is extremely safe and will not disrupt operations seriously if the new system does not work correctly the first time.
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198. An interpreter is a separate program that converts an entire source program into machine language before executing it.
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199. Hundreds of procedural languages exist.
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200. A just-in-time (JIT) compiler converts Java source code into machine code, and a Java interpreter executes the machine code, called bytecode, because the operating system cannot execute it.
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