Survey of World History A – Unit 4

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What was likely the main reason for the decline in knowledge of Latin after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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Rome was no longer the center of power.
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After the fall of the Roman Empire, what type of rulers took the place of the Roman emperor?
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warrior kings
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Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Holy Roman emperor. What did this indicate about the Catholic Church?
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The Church wanted to share power with the emperor.
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What was one major result of people moving from urban to rural areas after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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Many people had no access to schools, so education declined.
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What was a main purpose of monasteries built by the Catholic Church?
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They gave aid to travelers and sick or poor people.
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Idleness is the enemy of the soul. And therefore, at fixed times, the brothers ought to be occupied in manual labour; and again, at fixed times, in sacred reading. On the basis of this excerpt, what is of central importance for a monk?
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being busy in one way or another
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How did the Catholic Church contrast with the new government that developed after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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The church was much more organized.
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Which church leaders were immediately below cardinals in the Catholic Church hierarchy?
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archbishops
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After the Roman Empire collapsed, the Catholic Church began to unify Europe by
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taking on many duties of a government.
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What was an effect of the decline in trade after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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There was a shift to a rural society.
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Why were peasants worse off under the feudal system than they had been before?
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They had no hope of making a profit from their farmland.
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What does the map tell you about a difference between strategies of the Magyars and the Vikings?
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The Magyars preferred to invade by land.
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When did feudalism begin?
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during the period of Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasions
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By the Lord before whom this sanctuary is holy, I will to N. be true and faithful, and love all which he loves and shun all which he shuns, according to the laws of God and the order of the world. Nor will I ever with will or action, through word or deed, do anything which is unpleasing to him, on condition that he will hold to me as I shall deserve it, and that he will perform everything as it was in our agreement when I submitted myself to him and chose his will. Which sentence best summarizes the intent of this oath?
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The vassal promises to be loyal to his lord.
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After Easter this year the Viking army we spoke of before came to East Anglia. They landed at Ipswich and marched straight to where they had heard [the lord] was with his local forces. . . . And the East Anglians ran off at once. . . . The Danes held the battlefield. Then they got horses and afterwards took control of East Anglia and plundered and burned the countryside for four months—they even went as far as the wild fens and killed men and beasts and set fires throughout the fens, and burned down Cambridge and then turned south to the Thames River. . . .Then they turned back to their ships with their plunder. What does this excerpt reveal about the Vikings?
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They were raiders and they stole from people.
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Under the feudal system, what did peasants give up?
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freedom
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If a group of people pillaged a town, what did they do to the town?
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They took valuable items from the town.
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How did the feudal system protect a lord as well as his peasants?
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The manor had everything needed to live, and was surrounded by those sworn to protect it.
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Which statement best describes the Vikings?
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The Vikings were known for their seamanship.
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In a fiefdom, a peasant was expected to work the land and
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maintain the lord’s estate.
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The Canterbury Tales is important because it
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details the differences between social classes.
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Which development most influenced the expansion of trade?
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growth of urban centers
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What was a major effect of the new economic prosperity in medieval Europe?
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X More food was available for townspeople.
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Feudalism and the manor system changed life in the Middle Ages by
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creating sufficient food for a larger population.
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Beowulf is considered an epic poem because it
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describes the actions of a great warrior.
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During the early Middle Ages, only a few towns existed because
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agriculture was the basis of the economy.
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How did merchants most likely influence medieval culture?
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by sharing ideas and information at trade fairs
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Why was the development of towns economically important?
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The towns became centers of commerce.
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Which best describes why a manor in the early Middle Ages was self-sufficient?
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A variety of crops provided the necessary food.
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Why would Beowulf be considered a perfect medieval knight?
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He was determined to confront a dangerous creature.
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Which best defines common law?
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law based on precedent
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Which of the following is the best description of Richard the Lionhearted?
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The son of Eleanor, he was a hero of the Crusades.
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Which of the following describes why William the Conqueror wanted to take a census in England?
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William wanted information so he could know what taxes to place on his subjects’ property.
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The Magna Carta enabled English citizens to do which of the following for the first time?
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participate in government
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No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned . . . or in any way destroyed . . . except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. . . -The Magna Carta, 1215 What inference can be made about King John to explain why the writers of the Magna Carta included this passage?
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He had arbitrarily and unlawfully jailed his enemies.
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Unhappy with King John’s rule, a group of English nobles
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forced him to sign the Magna Carta.
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What historical event is depicted in this tapestry?
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William the Conqueror’s victory at the Battle of Hastings
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Which of the following would be the best title for the map?
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Europe after the Norman Conquest
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Which of these was William the Conqueror’s land of origin?
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Normandy
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What impact did the Magna Carta have on the English monarchy?
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It limited it.
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This royal city [Jerusalem] . . . desires to be liberated and begs you to come to her aid. . . . God has granted you above all other nations great glory in arms. Accordingly, undertake this journey eagerly for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the reward of imperishable glory in the kingdom of heaven. Which best summarizes what the pope is saying?
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God will reward those who liberate Jerusalem.
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In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, popes called for crusades against
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any groups they thought threatened Catholicism.
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The Crusades are considered to be a turning point in European history because they brought an end to
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the period of time known as the Middle Ages.
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After the Fourth Crusade, support among Europeans for the Crusades
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began to decline.
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The Catholic Church considered a heretic to be anyone who
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held religious ideas rejected by Church authorities.
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Which is the best description of the city of Constantinople at the time of the First Crusade?
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Constantinople was a Christian city from which the Crusaders marched on Jerusalem.
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What was the Reconquista?
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the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain
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Feudalism declined during the Crusades because
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many knights lost their lives and fortunes in battle.
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What compromise ended the Third Crusade?
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Muslims continued to rule Jerusalem, but they allowed Christian pilgrims free access to the city.
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The Crusades were military expeditions undertaken by
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European Christians to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims.
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By the end of the Hundred Years’ War, Joan of Arc had been
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executed for heresy.
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How did advances in weaponry during the Hundred Years’ War contribute to the end of the Middle Ages?
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Advanced weapons led to stronger monarchies and a weaker aristocracy.
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What directly led to a population decrease in Europe?
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famines
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Based on the graph, approximately how many people who got bubonic plague died from it?
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about 1 in 2
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In the 1300s, Jews were often blamed for causing the plague and
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were persecuted and murdered.
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Peasants gained power during the Hundred Years’ War by
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fighting in the English army.
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What was one effect of the Hundred Years’ War?
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the destruction of French towns and farms
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How did the end of the Hundred Years’ War strengthen monarchies?
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The conflict reduced the power of the nobility.
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How did Joan of Arc help France during the Hundred Years’ War?
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She inspired the French army to fight and helped win battles.
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What was one cause of the Hundred Years’ War?
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King Edward III claimed the French throne.
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As part of the Magna Carta, England’s Parliament had the power to
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approve or reject the king’s proposals.
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How did Charlemagne improve the lives of people in Europe?
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He revived education.
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The European plague of the 1300s was called the
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black death.
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One result of the Great Famine in Europe was
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an increase in death rates.
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The city of Jerusalem was significant to Muslims because it was
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the place where Muhammad was said to have ascended to heaven.
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How much of Europe’s population died from the plague in the 1300s?
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30-40 percent
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How did the famine and the plague affect the population of Europe in the 1300s?
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They killed millions and led people to move to cities.
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How did the development of different languages further divide Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire?
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Speaking different languages meant people from different areas could no longer communicate easily with each other.
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Which of these changes did William the Conqueror make after taking power in England?
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established a central government through feudalism
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One effect of the Crusades was that the Catholic Church
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grew in power and authority.
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Which description best summarizes why the feudal system benefited all its members?
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interdependence
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What was the outcome of the First Crusade?
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The Crusaders seized Jerusalem but were forced to defend it for the next one hundred years.
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The end of the Roman Empire marked the beginning of a new era called
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the Middle Ages.
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Which event happened first in history?
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The epic poem Beowulf was written.
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Saladin agreed to confirm an ironclad peace agreement between Christians and Saracens [Muslims]. It guaranteed free passage and access to the Holy Sepulcher of the Lord, without the requirement of any tribute or fee. It also granted the freedom of bringing objects for sale through any land whatever and of exercising a free commerce. Which was a condition of the peace treaty?
answer

freedom of trade between Europeans and Muslims

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