Stage Design

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T/F: The one person involved in a production that does not need to collaborate is the director, as they control the entire process.
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False
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T/F: Greek theatre did not include any scenic elements because the facility itself provided a perfect theatrical backdrop.
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False
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T/F: Symmetry and asymmetry are examples of proportion.
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False
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T/F: All forms are organic.
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False
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T/F: True collaboration often involves compromises from all members of the design team.
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True
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T/F: It is necessary to know what playing areas are needed in order to develop a ground plan.
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True.
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T/F: Sound designers can work independently, since their craft can not be visually seen on the stage.
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False
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T/F: The pit, box, and gallery structure of seating segregates theatre-goers by class.
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True.
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T/F: The chariot and pole system was a way to fly in actors in the Roman theatre.
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False
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T/F: A raked stage and linear perspective are both tools that a set designer can use to make the set seem larger than it really is.
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True
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T/F: Oil lamps were the first means of lighting indoor theatre.
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False
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T/F: Hue is actually another word for color.
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True
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T/F: All colors can be warm or cool.
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True.
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T/F: An important rule of brain-storming is that there are no rules.
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True
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T/F: The one person who is exempt from the full-team collaboration is the director, as it is their vision that the designers must develop.
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False
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T/F: Load-in is another term for the first time actors get to work on the set.
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False
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T/F: Rough textures reflect the most light, making it clear what that texture is.
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False
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T/F: Compositional movement is evident as the actor moves across the stage.
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False
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T/F: It is impossible to have static movement, as static means there is a lack of movement.
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False
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T/F: Proportion is an important principle of design as all scenic elements must be in proportion with the human figure.
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True
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T/F: The lighting and sound designers (in that order) are the two members of the design team that do not participate in the design meetings until later in the process.
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False
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T/F: The addition of white to a color makes it a tint.
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True
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What period includes the Mechane, Skene and Ekkyklema?
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Greek
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What was the purpose of the Ekkyklema?
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To show dead bodies
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What were pageant wagons?
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Mansions on carts- moveable sets
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What period were pageant wagons from?
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Medieval
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What is a perceived line?
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Drawing attention to something: eye line
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Proscenium:
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Fourth wall removed
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Black Box:
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Flexible space
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Thrust:
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Audience on three sides
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Environmental:
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Non-theatre building
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Arena:
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Theatre in the round
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Periaktoi-
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Greek
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Scaenae frons
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Roman
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Pageant Wagons
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Medieval
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Korthuni
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Greek
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Painted backdrops
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Renaissance
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New Stagecraft
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19th-20th Century
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Sliding Flats
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Renaissance
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Hell Mouth
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Medieval
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Pulpitum
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Roman
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Masks
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Greek
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Adolphe Appia
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Innovative for electrical light use in theatre.
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Max Reinhardt
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Director; Made common the approach to production that it was necessary to look to the dramatic text to find what tools would best serve the production.
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Joseph Svoboda
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Scenographer; created unique lighting designs
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Vsevolod Meyerhold
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Created a new acting system called biomechanics.
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Six Elements of Design
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1) Color 2) Texture 3) Space 4) Shape/Form 5) Line 6) Movement
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Eight Principles of Design
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1) Proportion 2) Unity 3) Rhythm 4) Variety 5) Proximity 6) Contrast 7) Emphasis 8) Balance
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What is the difference between a shape and a form?
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A shape is 2D, but a form is 3D
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What is atmospheric perspective and why is it useful for theatre?
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Lighter in the foreground, dark in the background. Has a vanishing point and shows depth.
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What is an analogous color theme?
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When there are many colors next to each other on the color wheel that are used.
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When is the use of a complimentary color theme useful?
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When you have two sets of groups on stage.
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T/F: Set designers have many of the same skills as architects.
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True
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T/F: The architectural scale of 1/4\”=1′-0\” is the same as 1:36
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False
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T/F: A designer’s elevation of a set wall in 1/2\” scale would show the size and shape of the wall with all its moldings and details.
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True
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T/F: Thumbnail sketches are small, about 1\” to 6\”, but are accurate and are drawn to a scale such as 1/8\”=1′-0\”
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True
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T/F: Scenic design is the least flexible of the design areas because we always use realism.
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False
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T/F: Jo Mielziener is the most prolific Broadway designer with over 500 shows
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False
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T/F: Though we use properties designers here at UA, in professional theatre the scenic designer is also responsible for designing props.
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True
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T/F: The scenic designer is ultimately responsible for the colors of the design which can be shown in a painted model or painter’s elevations or both.
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True
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T/F: The New Stagecraft Movement began in the early 1900’s with the designs of Robert Edmond Jones and sought to make each design an integrated, artistic statement applicable to each individual play.
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True
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T/F: Robert Edmond Jones called the scenic designer \”An artist of many occasions\”
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True
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The typical level of training necessary for scenic design:
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MFA degree
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True view in drafting refers to
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Looking straight in from any point to a particular point on a view of an object
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What’s the scale that is most common for painter’s elevations?
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1/2\”=1’=0\”
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A cross-section view shows
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The shape and internal composition of a unit, a whole theatre as seen from the side, and a matching cutting plane
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A research collage is
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a collection of info about the play, colors associated with the play, and a picture which has something to do with the play both connotative and denotative.
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A sketch or a white scenic model
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An accurate but quick unpainted model.
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A finished or presentation model
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is a very complete and painted model with all textures, colors and moldings shown.
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Orthographic projection means
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Three 2d views that can fully describe an object
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Designer elevations are turned into construction drawings by
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the technical director
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A point of view is
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The emotional essence of the play
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What are the differences between the European scenographic approach to design and American tradition scenic design?
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European scenographers design all the elements, or at least costumes and sets. In European theatre it is typical that only the director and scenographer would be trained in graduate school, and these are co-equal positions.
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What does realism in scenic design mean?
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There are practical elements in a show one would see in everyday life: real furniture and props that could have come from someone’s home, every day life costumes, etc.
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What is the difference between designer drawings and construction drawings and who is responsible for the execution of each?
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Designer drawings are the sketches for a show, usually very colorful and light. More like art to give the director an idea of a complete rendering. The set designer is responsible for these. In construction drawings, the exact measurements and dimensions of the set are laid out, and the technical director is in charge of these.
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What are the advantages of building a scenic model over drawing a scenic sketch? How do you decide which is best for any given situation?
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The advantages of building a scenic model over a scenic sketch are that they show more precise sizes of set pieces better than a drawing can show, and you can use one model to show different set changes, set pieces, etc. Based on the size of the production, each markup can be used in different situations. For smaller shows, sketches might be easier.
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What are the six of the 10 steps I outlined in the process of creating a scenic design?
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1) Read the script 2) Create a point of view 3) Come up with an approach 4) Think of the practical design-set pieces/props 5) Research and gather materials 6) Collaborate with the director 7) Create a sketch
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What is it like to operate a small business as an independent scenic designer in regards to unions, travel, salary, and taxes?
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An independent scene designer will not make nearly as much if they are not a part of the United Scenic Artists Union. They could make up to $2,500-$3,000 a show at most, and would have to pay taxes for having their own business as well as travel fees.
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Name at least 5 skills that a good scenic designer would need to possess:
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1) Artist 2) Sculptor 3) Architect 4) Appreciation for theatre 5) Director
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Appia and Craig:
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Innovative for electrical light use in theatre.
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Robert Edmond Jones:
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Father of the New Stage Craft Movement
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Jo Mielznier:
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Poetic realism, designed 250 Broadway shows
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Ming Cho Lee
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Lyrical poetic realism, brought sculpting into design
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T/F: The silhouette is one of the first and most important elements of the costume, since it tells us what color the garment is.
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False
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T/F: Since most costumes are on a larger scale, the accessories and details aren’t very important to the overall look.
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False
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T/F: When designing costumes it is always important to consider all design elements.
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True
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T/F: Thumbnail sketches are critical to communicating the tiny details in a garment, especially the design of a fabric.
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False
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T/F: Costumes can be considered \”wearable scenery\”
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True
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T/F: Costumes can help establish the time, but not the location for a play.
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False
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T/F: It is important that upon first reading of the script, the costume designer quickly develops thumbnail sketches and then does research to complete the full design.
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False
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T/F: The costume designer and set designer should meet to discuss their ideas before presenting them together to the director.
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False
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T/F: The style that a play is written shouldn’t have any impact on the choices that the costume designer makes.
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False
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T/F: All inspiration for a costume designer should come directly from the script.
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False
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T/F: A costume sketch can be considered a \”contract\” between the director and the costume designer.
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True
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T/F: A costume sketch is a prime means of communication between the director and the costume designer.
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True
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T/F: It is considered poor practice to attach images of research to the costume sketch, especially when the sketch is in the costume shop.
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False
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T/F: The costume design process is linear, no steps should need to be repeated if the sequence is followed correctly.
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False
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T/F: Since it is the character that is most important and what the designer wants to make clear, the actor’s look and stature is not usually taken into account.
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False
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T/F: The costume designer usually has very little input into the hair/makeup design
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False
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T/F: It is very important that the costume designer works with the lighting designer, as the color of the lights can have a direct impact on the look of the costume.
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True
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What are the two primary functions of costumes as listed in your text?
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1) Create Characters 2) Visual Composition
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Describe the process of costume design (5 steps)
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1) Read the script 2) Research 3) Meet w/director (thumbnails) 4) Full sketch/Design 5) Execution
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What are seven things found in a costume bible?
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1) Contact sheets 2) Research 3) Action charts 4) Actor Measurements 5) Costume Plot 6) Budgets 7) Thumbnails/Full sketches
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What is the difference between an action chart and a costume plot?
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An action chart tells what scene an actor is in costume plot describes what costumes the actor is wearing in those scenes.
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List five tools a costume technician uses in the costume shop
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1) Ruler 2) Pencil/eraser 3)Tailor’s chalk 4) Scissors 5) Pattern Paper
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A designer brings a _______ into a costume shop and the technician makes a _________
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-Rendering/Costume -2D picture/3D picture
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The information about an actor that the costume technician needs most is
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Specific measurements
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Tailoring involves
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Making a structured jacket
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Millinery involves
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Making a hat
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The costume technician creates a garment in cheap fabric to test for fit and style. This is called a ___________
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mock up
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The difference between flat patterning and draping is:
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FP: Engineering a design D: Designing without a pattern
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What are 6 Steps in the costume building process?
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1) Get actor’s measurements 2) Make mock up based on sketches 3) Try it on an actor with a designer 4) Make adjustments/Make actual costumes 5) Try it on an actor with director 6) Dress/add finishings
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List two ways a costume technician figures out the shape that the pattern pieces need to be (two ways to develop a pattern)
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1) Flat patterning 2) Draping
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List 5 personnel in the costume shop:
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1) Shop Manager 2) Cutter/draper 3) first hand 4) Stitches 5) Painters/dyers
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What is the name of the costume shop foreman at UA?
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Becky
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Why is it important to do an action chart before actually designing the show?
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Quick changes are important to the intricacy of the costumes, so if an actor has a lot of them, costumes that can be layered and easily changed are important.
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Base
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The first thing you apply when beginning to make up a face
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Highlight
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A light makeup used to bring out natural facial features.
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Shadow
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A dark make up that hides features when blended
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Stage Blood
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A liquid substance used to accent cuts that tastes like mint
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Liquid Latex
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A liquid substance that adheres to the face as it dries and creates textures
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Scar Wax
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A putty substance that can be used to create a 3D effect
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Ben Nye
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The company that provides the theatrical makeup kit
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Nasal Labial Fold
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The area of the face that is made up with shadow lines and highlight to make the skin look sagged.
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Pouch
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A technique of making the under eye look puffy using the highlight
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Bags
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A technique of making the under eye look sunken in
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Human
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A wig made out of natural hair
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Synthetic
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A wig made out of unnatural hair
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Pin Curl
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Making the hair on an individual as flat as possible to hide it under the wig in small sections
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Spirit Gum
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An adhesive that becomes sticky when tapped and used to apply 3D objects to the face
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Blending
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The technique of using a brush to mold the make up into the face.
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Wrinkles
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Applying highlight and shadow in lines on the face to create a certain character feature
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Character Map
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Tracing the outlines of the face and coloring in the makeup onto translucent paper
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Finger Wave
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The art of combing the hair back and fourth to create a specific style popular in the 1920s and 1930s
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Corrective
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Applying a highlight and shadow to accent the natural features of the face
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Design Sketch
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Drawing a plan for the makeup design using a blank facial canvas
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Research
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Collecting inspiration for your character in order to create a make up design
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Wig Cap
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A stretchy covering that goes in between the wig and individual’s hair
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Translucent Powder
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The final step after applying the make up to set it on the face
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Stipple brush
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A square object used to create texture on the face
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Bobby Pin
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An accessory used to hold hair in place
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List 5 good sources for finding research for hair and costumes
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1) Library 2) Internet 3) Photographs 4) Art 5) Magazines`
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What are the 4 controllable properties of lighting?
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1) Intensity 2) Distribution 3) Color 4) Movement
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What are the functions of stage lighting for a production?
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1) Style 2) Mood 3) Rhythm 4) Visibility 5) Establish the scene 6) Modeling 7) Focus 8) Staging the Story 9) Composition
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This sheet of plastic is put at the front of the light and used to create color in light
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Gel
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The more electricity a light uses…
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The hotter it is.
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LED lighting instruments
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1) Are expensive 2) Can change colors 3) Use very little electricity
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Color choice is important for theatre because
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It can make actors and their costumes look good or bad
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_______ focuses the lights while the Lighting Designer directs them
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Electrician
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_______ receives the lighting paperwork plan and makes sure there are enough lights, they are all hung in place, and have the correct color in them
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Master electrician
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_______ lights can be focused with a barrel and cropped with shutters
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Spot
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_______ is a type of old wash light with a large headlight in a metal barrel. It is used in a rock and roll shows, runs on 1,000 watts of power and gets very hot.
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P.A.R.
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________ is a type of newer ellipsoidal spot light. It has shutters, can be focused with a barrel, can have gobos, and can have color
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Source Four
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A gobo is
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Metal disc with a pattern cut in it
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McCandles lighting design involves two lights 45 degree away from the actor and
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one warm and one cool color
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Sound is air that moves in the form of _____ that travel _____ feet per second.
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waves/1130
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Define the 5 controllable properties of sound 1) pitch 2) volume 3) quality 4) direction 5) acoustics
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1) pitch: The tone or frequency 2) volume: How loud/soft it is 3) quality: How clear the sound is 4) direction: Where sound is coming from 5) acoustics: Where audience perceives sound to be bouncing off of
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List and define the four ways sound can be altered by its environment
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1) Absorption: Deadens; sound does not reflect and goes away 2) Diffraction: Bends around and object 3) Reflection: Bounces off an object 4) Refraction: Changes direction within a medium
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What are the three causes of reflection?
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1) Echo 2) Reverb 3) Standing waves
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In a musical where is the preferred location of the sound image?
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On stage
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What does to liven sound mean?
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To make sound more active/loud/clear
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What does to deaden sound mean?
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To absorb or soften the sound
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List three material that could be used to help deaden a live room
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1) Soundproof boards 2) Heavy fabric 3) People
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What is the threshold that humans are able to hear on the SPL chart?
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10db
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What does ringing in your ears mean, such as after a concert or using a loud tool?
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A part of your hearing is permanently damaged and lost.
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When creating a lightning and thunder sound effect who is the first person, besides the director, you should give the finished version to?
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Lighting designer
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What is the most important part of creating sound effects?
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Research and knowing when to use them
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Why is adding reverb to a gunshot sound effect important?
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It depends on where the gun is. A real gun will create an echo.

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