Speech Mid-Term

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In what ways is public speaking likely to make a difference in your life?
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Employers rank the ability to communicate effectively among the most important skill when interviewing college graduates
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How is public speaking similar to everyday conversation?
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You organize your thought logically, tailor your message to your audience, tell a story for maximum impact, and adapt to listener’s feedback.
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How is public speaking different from everyday conversation?
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Public speaking is more highly structured, requires more formal language, and requires a different method of delivery.
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Why is it normal – even desirable – to be nervous at the start of a speech?
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Your body is responding as it would to any stressful situation – by producing extra adrenaline.
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How can you control your nervousness and make it work for you in your speeches?
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Transform it from a negative force into what one expert calls “positive nervousness.” “Stage excitement,” or “stage enthusiasm”
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What are the seven elements of the speech communication process?
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Speaker, message, channel, listener, feedback, interference, and situation
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How do the elements of the speech communication process interact to determine the success or failure of a speech?
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Answer out-loud
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What is ethnocentrism?
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The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or culture
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Why do public speakers need to avoid ethnocentrism when addressing audiences with diverse cultural, racial, or ethnic backgrounds?
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It leads to prejudice and hostility towards different racial, ethnic, religious, or cultural groups.
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What is ethics?
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The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
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Why is a strong sense of ethical responsibility vital for public speakers?
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Ethics come into play whenever a speaker faces an audience
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What are the five guidelines for ethical speech-making discussed in this chapter?
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Make sure goals are ethically sound, be fully prepared for each speech, be honest in what you say, avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language, and put ethical principles into practice.
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What is the difference between global plagiarism and patchwork plagiarism?
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Global plagiarism is taking a whole speech and passing it off as your own, patchwork is when you take ideas and try to pass them off as your own in your speech.
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What are the best ways to avoid global and patchwork plagiarism?
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Be sure to get started on your speech as soon as possible
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What is incremental plagiarism?
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Failing to give credit for a particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people
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What is the best way to avoid incremental plagiarism?
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Check your source notes and when in doubt cite your source.
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What are the three guidelines for ethical listening?
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Be courteous and attentive, avoid prejudging the speaker, and maintain the free and open expression of ideas
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What is the difference between hearing and listening?
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Listening involves paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
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How is listening connected with critical thinking?
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It enhances your skills as a critical thinker.
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why is it important to develop strong listening skills?
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not having them means not having strong critical thinking skills
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What are the four main causes of poor listening?
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Not concentrating, listening to hard, Jumping to conclusions, and focusing on delivery and personal appearance
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What are seven ways to become a better listener?
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Take listening seriously, be an active listener, resist distractions, don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery, suspend judgment, focus your listening, and develop note-taking skills
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What two major steps are used for developing your introductory speech?
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Focusing your topic and developing your topic
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When organizing your introductory speech, you should divide it into what three sections?
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Introduction, body, and conclusion
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What method of delivery is recommend for your introductory speech?
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Speaking extemporaneously; a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from an outline
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What steps should you take when rehearsing your first speech?
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practice out-loud, speak to a friend or family member, and time your speech
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What five elements of speech delivery are discussed with regard to presenting your first speech?
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Starting your speech, gestures, eye contact, voice, and dealing with nerves.
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What three brainstorming methods can you follow if you are having trouble choosing a topic for your speech?
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Personal inventory, clustering, and internet search
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What are the two general purposes of most classroom speeches?
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To inform or to persuade
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How do inform and persuade speeches differ?
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one you act as a teacher or lecturer the other you act as an advocate or a partisan
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Why is determining the specific purpose such an important early step in speech preparation?
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it states precisely what the speaker hope to accomplish in the speech
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Why is it important to include the audience in the specific purpose statement?
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it helps keep the audience at the center of your attention as your prepare your speech
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What are five tips for formulating your specific purpose statement?
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Write as a full infinitive phrase, express your purpose as a statement, avoid figurative language, limit to one distinct idea, and make sure it is not too vague or general
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What are five question to ask about your specific purpose?
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does it meet the assignment, can i accomplish my purpose in the time allotted, is it relevant to my audience, is it too trivial, and is it too technical
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what are the difference between the specific purpose and the central idea of a speech?
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one is what you hope to accomplish the other is what you expect to say to do so; think thesis statement
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What are four guidelines for an effective central idea?
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expressed in full sentences, not be in question form, avoid figurative language, and not be vague or overly general
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Why must a public speaker be audience-centered?
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to gain a desired response from listeners
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What does it mean to say that people are egocentric?
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they view the world through a lenses make from their own culture or values
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What implications does the egocentrism of audiences hold for you as a public speaker?
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they pay closest attention to messages that affect their own values, beliefs, and well-being
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What are the six demographic traits of audiences?
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Age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, racial, ethnic, and cultural background, and group membership
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Why is each demographic trait important to audience analysis?
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they help to know how your listeners will respond to your speech
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What is situational audience analysis?
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identifies traits of the audience unique to the speaking situation at hand
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What factors do you need to consider in situational audience analysis?
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size, physical setting, disposition towards the topic, speaker, and occasion
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How can you get information about an audience?
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using a questionnaire with fixed-alternative, scale, and open-end questions
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What are the three kinds of questions used in questionnaires?
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fixed-alternative, scale, and open-end questions
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Why is it a good idea to use all three questionnaire questions in audience analysis?
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because have their advantages and disadvantages
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What methods can you use to adapt your speech to your audience before the speech?
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assessing how your audience is likely to respond to what you say, adjusting what you say to make it clear, appropriate, and convincing
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Why do you need supporting materials in your speeches?
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to bolster the speaker’s point of view
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What are the three kinds of examples discussed in this chapter?
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brief, extended, and hypothetical
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What are five tips for using examples in your speech?
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use to clarify your ideas, reinforce ideas, personalize ideas, make them vivid and richly textured, practice delivery
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Why is it so easy to lie with stats?
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they can easily be manipulated and distorted
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What three questions should you ask to judge the reliability of statistics?
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are the stats representative, are measures used correctly, are they from a reliable source
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What are six tips for using stats in your speech?
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to quantify ideas, use stats sparingly, identify the source, explain, round off complicated numbers, use visual aids
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What is testimony?
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quotations or paraphrases used to support a point
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What is the difference between expert and peer testimony?
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one is from a recognized experts the other is from an ordinary person with firsthand experience or insight
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What are four tips for using testimony in your speeches?
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quote or paraphrase accurately, from qualified sources, unbiased sources, and identify the people
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What four pieces of information do you usually need to provide when making oral source citations in a speech?
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title, author, author’s qualifications, and date of publication
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Why is it important that speeches be organized clearly and coherently?
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so that listeners can follow the progression of ideas in a speech from beginning to end
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How many main points will your speech usually contain?
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about two, maybe three
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Why is it important to limit the number of main points?
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because you may not have enough time, too many main points in the audience will trouble sorting them out
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what are the five basic patterns of organizing main points in the speech?
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chronological order, spatial order, casual order, problem-solution order, and topical order
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what are three tips for preparing your main points?
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keep me in point separate, try to use the same pattern of wording for main points, balance the amount of time devoted to main points
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what is the most important thing to remember when organizing supporting materials in the body of your speech?
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organize supporting materials so they are directly relevant to the main points
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what are four kinds of speech connectives?
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transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts
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what are the four objectives of the speech introduction?
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get the attention and interest of your audience, reveal the topic of your speech, establish your credibility and goodwill, and preview the body of the speech
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what are seven methods you can use in the introduction to get the attention and interest of your audience?
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related topic to the audience, State the importance of your topic, startled audience, question the audience, begin with a quotation,, or tell a story
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why is it important to establish your credibility and the beginning of your speech?
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to show that you were called on to speak on a given topic to your listeners
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what is a preview statement?
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a statement in the introduction of the speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
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why should you nearly always include a preview statement in the introduction of your speech?
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to tell the listeners what they should listen for in the rest of your speech
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what are six tips for introduction?
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keep it brief, lookout for possible introductory materials as you do your research, be creative, do not worry about the exact wording, work it out in detail, don’t start talking to you soon
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what are the major functions of the speech conclusion?
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signal the end of the speech, reinforce the central idea
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what are two ways you can signal the end of your speech?
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through what you say, such as, in conclusion; manner of delivery, crescendo ending decrescendo
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what are four ways to reinforce the central idea when concluding your speech?
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summarize your speech, end with a quote, make a dramatic statement, or refer to the introduction
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what are four tips for your conclusion?
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keep an eye out for possible concluding material as you research, conclude with a bang, don’t be long-winded, don’t leave it to chance
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how does language help create a sense of reality?
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by giving meaning to events
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what is the difference between denotative and connotative meaning?
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one the dictionary meaning, the other is the emotions triggered by a word
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how might you use denotative or consultative meaning to convey your message most effectively?
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denotative meaning can be used to be precise; connotative meaning can be used to give words intensity and emotional power
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what are three things you should do to use language clearly in your speeches?
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use familiar words, choose concrete words, eliminate clutter
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what are two ways to bring your speeches to life with vivid, animated language?
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by using imagery and/or rhythm
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what does it mean to say you should use language appropriately in your speeches?
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appropriateness to occasion, the audience, the topic, and a speaker
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why is it important for a public speaker to use inclusive language?
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to be respectful to the listeners, to avoid stereotypes based on age, race, gender, disability, and other factors
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what four usages of inclusive language have become so widely accepted that no speaker can afford to ignore them?
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avoid the generic “he,” avoid the use of “man” when referring to both men and women, avoid stereotyping jobs and social rules by gender, use names that groups used to identify themselves
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what is nonverbal communication?
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communication based on a person’s use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words
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what are the four methods of speech delivered?
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reading from a manuscript, reciting from memory, speaking impromptu, speaking extemporaneously
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what are the eight and aspects of voice usage you can concentrate on in your speeches?
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volume, pitch, rate, pauses, vocal variety, pronunciation, dialect
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what are the four aspects of bodily action you should concentrate on in your speeches?
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personal appearance, movement, gestures, and eye contact
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what are the five steps you should follow when practicing your speech delivery?
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practice aloud, prepare your speaking outline, practice several times, polish and refine your delivery, dress rehearsal
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what steps should you take when preparing for a question-and-answer session?
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formulate answers to possible questions and practiced the delivery of your answers
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what should you concentrate on when responding to questions during the session?
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approach questions with a positive attitude, listening carefully, direct answers to the entire audience, be honest and straightforward, stay on track
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what are the major advantages of using visual aids in your speeches?
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listeners are more interested, grasp ideas more easily, and retain it longer when presented visually as well as verbally
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what kind of visual aids might you use in a speech?
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photographs, graphs, charts, the speaker
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what guidelines are given for preparing visual aids?
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prepare visual aids well in advance, keep visually simple, make sure visual aids are large enough, is a limited amount of text, use fonts effectively, use color effectively, and use images strategically
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what guidelines are given for presenting visual aids?
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display where listeners can see them, avoid passing around, display only while discussing, explained clearly, talk to your audience not your aid, practice, and checked the room and equipment
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what are the four types of informative speeches?
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speeches about objects, processes, events, and concepts
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why must informative speakers be careful not to overestimate what the audience knows about the topic?
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listeners can become lost
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what can you do to make sure your ideas don’t pass over the heads of your listeners?
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relate the subject directly to the audience, don’t be too technical, avoid extractions, personalize your ideas, and be creative
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what should you do as informative speaker to related topic directly to the audience?
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take special steps to relate to your audience, you should tie it in with their interests and concerns
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what two things should you watch out for in making sure your speech is not overly technical?
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subject matter and language use
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what are three methods you should use to avoid abstractions in your informative speech?
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description, comparison, contrasts
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what does it mean to say that informative speakers should personalize their ideas?
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to represent one’s ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience
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why is it important for informative speakers to be creative in thinking about ways to communicate their ideas?
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so that your speech does not sound like an oral encyclopedia article; boring

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