SOP Ch. 1 Practice Test

What distinguishes cultural psychology from mainstream psychology?
a) The phenomenon of interest and study
b) The interest in a narrow range of phenomena related to human behavior
c) Topic specific cross-cultural research methods
d) The interest in understanding cultural influences on behavior
d.

Which of the following is correct?
a) Groups are less efficient because they divide labor.
b) Morality, a uniquely human product, is present from birth.
c) Humans and animals have the ability to continually build upon improvements.
d) Complexity, differentiation, and institutionalization differentiate humans from animals.
d

Human culture, as a unique meaning and information system transmitted across generations, allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life.
a) True
b) False
a

That psychologists and laypersons often equate ethnicity with race ____.
a) is incorrect
b) is problematic
c) is arbitrary
d) has no explanatory value
b

Nonhuman animals have social groups similar to humans but they do not have cultures.
a) True
b) False
b

Which of the following statements is true?
a) Society is a system of interrelationships among people.
b) Only human animals are social and have societies.
c) Culture and society are both about the meanings and information that are associated with social networks.
d) All human cultures assign similar or same meanings to their social groups.
a

Which statement about race is true?
a) Race can be genetically proven
b) Race is only controversial in the lay community
c) Studies of genetic systems suggest that racially defined groups are more similar than different
d) Anthropologists use skin color, hair, and other physical characteristics to define race
c

____ is the social psychological frame within which individuals reside, much like the structure of our houses and homes.
a) Society
b) Culture
c) A social construct
d) Popular culture
b

Which of the following statements is true regarding Hofstede’s value dimensions?
a) Hofstede suggests four dimensions that differentiate cultures.
b) Power Distance refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations.
c) Masculinity vs. Femininity refers to the distribution of social and sexual roles between males and females.
d) Intellectual Autonomy refers to the degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people’s independent pursuit of positive experiences.
c

Which one of the following statements is true of Shalom Schwartz’s research?
a) He measured values in many countries using a 65-item instrument.
b) His Affective and Intellectual Autonomy and Egalitarianism is positively correlated with Hofstede’s Individualism.
c) He identified six universal values.
d) His universal values include embeddedness, hierarchy, and uncertainty avoidance.
b

Social axioms are general beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world.
a) True
b) False
a

Which one of the following statements is true regarding cultural worldviews?
a) An important aspect of our worldviews is how we think about our self.
b) They are universal belief systems about the world.
c) People have worldviews because of globalization.
d) Most cultures share the same cultural worldviews.
a

Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Culture is an adaptational response to ecology, social factors, and ethnicity.
b) Culture is a tangible, not an abstract concept.
c) Culture influences psychological processes, not behaviors.
d) Newborns have no culture.
d

Individuals are first welcomed into their worlds at birth and begin a process of learning about their culture through the process of ____.
a) enculturation
b) education
c) grouping
d) language
a

Which if the following is the most accurate statement?
a) The evolution of human culture suggests that there are few psychological processes in which all humans engage.
b) Humans are not unique in their ability to recognize that others are intentional agents.
c) There are little cultural differences in attributional styles among different human cultures.
d) Attribution processes may be found only in human society.
d

____ are evaluations of things occurring in ongoing thoughts about the things, or stored in memory.
a) Attitudes
b) Worldviews
c) Culture-specific worldviews
d) Norms
a

An important thing to remember about cultures is that some serve their purpose better than others and not all have worked until now.
a) True
b) False
b

While people of different cultures are often similar in what they do, they are very different in why they do them.
a) True
b) False
b

A universal psychological process is one that is found to be true or applicable for most people of most cultures.
a) True
b) False
b

While cross-cultural research makes methodological changes in studies, in a broader sense, it is also a way of ____.
a) demonstrating the conditional lack of limitations in our knowledge
b) understanding principles about human behaviors within a global perspective
c) proving people of different cultures are different
d) proving people of different cultures are similar
b

The process of making attributions is something that is universal to all humans.
a) True
b) False
a

Which one of the following statements is true?
a) Most animals are solitary and do not live in groups.
b) In animal societies, there are no clear social networks and hierarchies.
c) As with the human staring game, the animal that smiles or averts its gaze becomes subordinate.
d) Very few animals actually invent and use tools.
c

Which one of the following statements regarding language is correct?
a) A few non-human animals have the ability to symbolize their physical and metaphysical world.
b) Some non-human animals can create sounds representing symbols (morphemes).
c) Some non-human animals use sentence structure.
d) Syntax and grammar are unique to humans.
d

____ is an organized system of beliefs that tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldviews, and norms provide guidelines for living.
a) Religion
b) Spirituality
c) A culture’s set of normal values
d) A culture’s set of sacred morals
a

Morality is a uniquely human product and turns on in humans around nine months of age.
a) True
b) False
a

Girls playing with dolls and boys playing with cars are examples of ____. A pregnant woman is an example of a ____.
a) sex roles; gender role
b) gender roles; sex role
c) sex differences; gender difference
d) gender differences; sex difference
b

Which of the following can be described as a folk theory?
a) Race is a biological construct.
b) Race is a social construct.
c) Culture is what gives race its meaning.
d) Race is a categorical construct.
a

Nationality is a term that includes concepts of both race and culture.
a) True
b) False
b

Cross-cultural research focuses on testing the ____ of psychological knowledge.
a) population parameters
b) cultural parameters
c) culture specific ideology
d) scientific philosophy
b

Which one of the following statements is not true in terms of culture?
a) Many animals are social; that is, they work and live in groups.
b) In animal societies, there are clear social networks and hierarchies.
c) Animals do not invent and use tools.
d) Many animals communicate with each other.
c

What are the three characteristics of human social and cultural life that differentiates it from those of animals?
a) Complexity, family, and language
b) Complexity, differentiation, and institutionalization
c) Complex play, groups, and institutionalization
d) Language, groups, and social needs
b

Technology, population density and climate are all factors that influence culture, whereas temperament is not.
a) True
b) False
b

One of the most important thinking abilities that humans have that other animals apparently do not have is the ability to believe that other people ____.
a) are intentional agents
b) understand gestures
c) make articulate sounds
d) are separate from ourselves
a

____ refers to the fact that relationships among individuals exist, and in human societies, individuals have multiple relationships with multiple groups, and the groups themselves have interrelationships with other groups.
a) Culture
b) Social interaction
c) Collectivism
d) Society
d

____ refers to the individual differences that exist among individuals within groups.
____ is the social psychological frame within which individuals reside, much like the structure of our houses and homes.
a) Personality; Culture
b) Temperament; Society
c) Culture; Popular culture
d) Family; Culture
a

____ refers to the degree to which cultures will encourage less powerful members of groups to accept that power is distributed unequally.
a) Individualism
b) Collectivism
c) Power distance
d) Power game
c

____ refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by unknown or ambiguous situations, and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to avoid them.
a) Femininity
b) Masculinity
c) Individualism
d) Uncertainty avoidance
d

Which of the following is NOT part of Hofstede’s value dimensions?
a) Individualism
b) Masculinity
c) Femininity
d) Personality
d

____ is the degree to which cultures emphasize the maintenance of the status quo, propriety, and restraint of actions or inclinations that might disrupt the solidarity of the group or the traditional order.
a) Embeddedness
b) Ambiguity
c) Personality
d) Power distance
a

____ is the degree to which cultures emphasize the legitimacy of hierarchical allocation of fixed roles and resources such as social power, authority, humility, or wealth.
a) Mastery
b) Hierarchy
c) Intellectual autonomy
d) Affective autonomy
b

. Hofstede’s dimension of ____ has by far received the greatest attention in cross-cultural research. It has been used to both predict and explain many differences across cultures, especially in many aspects of thinking and emotions.
a) Power Distance
b) Uncertainty Avoidance
c) Masculinity vs. Femininity
d) Individualism vs. Collectivism
d

____ is the degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people’s independent pursuit of positive experiences. It fosters pleasure and an exciting or varied life.
a) Egalitarianism
b) Affective autonomy
c) Harmony
d) Intellectual autonomy
b

____ is/are general beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world. Leung et al. (2002) demonstrated the universal existence of five types of ____ on the individual level in 41 cultural groups.
a) Dynamic externality
b) Harmony
c) Affective autonomy
d) Social axioms
d

____ represents an outward-oriented, simplistic grappling with external forces that are construed to include fate and a supreme being. It is the culture-level reflection of the belief structures that form part of a psychological constellation that aids citizens to mobilize psychologically to confront environmental difficulties.
a) Dynamic externality
b) Affective autonomy
c) Social axioms
d) Mastery
a

Many psychologists agree that many psychological processes – attitudes, values, beliefs, personality, cognition – are not inherently constructed by culture and are largely independent of it.
a) True
b) False
b

Which of the following is true about worldviews?
a) Worldviews arise not from evolved, complex cognition but from cultural institutions.
b) Having a worldview is a psychological process specific to certain cultures.
c) Specific content of worldviews is non-specific to each culture.
d) Sometimes behaviors and cultural worldviews are not related to each other.
d

Culture is an adaptational response to three factors—____. These three factors combine to produce ways of living, and culture is an abstract concept that explains and describes those ways.
a) ecology, resources, and people
b) personality, social factors, and biological factors
c) relational, individual, and biological factors
d) psychological, ecology, and biological factors
a

. ____ refer to those processes that are consistent across different cultures, to universal psychological processes. ____ refer to those processes that are different across cultures.
a) Emics; Etics
b) Etics, Emics
c) Phonemes, Phonetics
d) Phonetics, Phonemes
b

What is the concept of the ratchet effect?
a) It refers to the idea that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to a previous state.
b) It is a psychological process that is considered to be true for some people of some cultures but not for others.
c) It is a psychological process that is found to be true or applicable for all people of all cultures.
d) It is a process of learning about and being indoctrinated into a culture.
a

______ are beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior.
a) Culture-specific motivations
b) Attributions
c) Etics
d) Emics
b