solutions vocab

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solution
solution
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A mixture that forms when a solute is dissolved in a solvent. A solution is formed when salt and water mix together.
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solute
solute
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A substance that is dissolved in a solution. Salt is the solute when being mixed with water.
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solvent
solvent
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The substance in which the solute dissolves in. The most commonly used solvent is water.
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conductivity
conductivity
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ability to conduct an electric charge; a measure of dissolved solids (mg/L). Acids and bases both have conductivity, so they can hold an electric charge.
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concentration
concentration
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A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent. The more solute added to a substance, the higher the concentration is.
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dissolving
dissolving
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The process of mixing a solute in a solvent to produce a homogeneous mixture. An base is any compound forming hydroxide ions in dissolved water.
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solubility
solubility
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A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature. The more solute being dissolved, the higher the solubility of the substances.
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acids
acids
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compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Lemons contain citric acid in it which causes lemons to taste so sour.
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bases
bases
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Substances that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Bases have a bitter taste and are slippery to touch.
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neutral
neutral
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A substance that is 7 on the pH scale. Water is neutral because it has a pH of exactly 7.
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mixtures
mixtures
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2 or more components physically mixed together; atoms and molecules don’t change as there is no chemical bonding. Can separate out the components. Chex Mix is considered a mixture because the substances do not combine chemically and you could separate out the components.
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pH scale
pH scale
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A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. Acids are to the left of 7 on the pH scale.
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hydronium ions
hydronium ions
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A positively charged ion formed when an acid dissolves in water. The symbol for a hydronium ion is H3O+.
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hydroxide ions
hydroxide ions
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A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen (OH-). Hydroxide ions are formed when bases dissolve in water.
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litmus paper
litmus paper
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An example of an indicator that changes color in a solution and is used to tell if a solution is acidic or basic. If the red litmus paper turns blue, the substance is a base.
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Indicator
Indicator
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A compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base. Litmus paper is an example of an indicator because it color according to if the substance is an acid or base.
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saturated
saturated
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Containing the highest amount of substance it can hold. Is NaCl saturated at 50 degrees at 70g in 100mL of water?
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unsaturated
unsaturated
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A solution that contains less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute in a concentration. If the solution is unsaturated, it can still hold more dissolved solution.
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supersaturated
supersaturated
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A solution that holds more dissolved solute than is required to reach equilibrium at a given temperature. Not all the solute will dissolve if the solution is supersaturated.
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solubility curve
solubility curve
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A graphic representation of the variation with changing temperature of the solubility of a given substance in a given solvent. Temperature will always be on the bottom of a solubility curve graph.

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