Solubility Test Review Flashcard

Supersaturated 

Containing an amount of a substance greater than that required for saturation as a result of having been cooled from a higher temperature to a temperature below that at which saturation occurs

Saturated 

a solution that is unable to absorb or dissolve any more of a solute at a given temperature and pressure.

Unsaturated

 capable of dissolving more of a solute at the same temperature.

Miscible 

Relating to two or more substances that can be mixed together or can dissolve into one another in any proportion without separating.

Immiscible

Incapable of being mixed or blended together.

Hygroscopic

 a property of a substance to absorb water from its surroundings.

Deliquescent
Property that inclines a substance to absorb moisture from the atmosphere until it dissolves.

Solvent

The component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount. It is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.

Precipitate

an insoluble solid that emerges from a liquid solution. 
Solute
 the chemical dissolved in a solution. 

Concentrated

a solution that contains a large amount of solute relative to the amount that could dissolve
Dilute
a solution containing a relatively small quantity of solute as compared with the amount of solvent

Homogeneous

 mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.


Examples include Solutions and all pure substances: salt water, water, oxygen

Heterogeneous

 made of different substances that remain physically separate.


Examples include colloids such as jello and suspension such as oil and water.

Colloid

a heterogeneous mixture that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution
Solution
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Suspension

 a heterogeneous mixture in which particles settle out some time after their introduction

Pure substance

A material that is composed of only one type of particle


Elements and compounds are pure substances

Electrolyte
substance that conducts electric current as a result of a dissociation into positively and negatively charged particles called ions
Nonelectrolyte
 substance that does not readily ionize when dissolved or melted and is a poor conductor

Ionic bond

when a positively charged ion forms a bond with a negatively charged ions and one atom transfers electrons to another.

Non-polar covalent bond

 a bond that occurs when two atoms share electrons equally.
Polar Covalent Bond

a covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed.

Examples of
Pure substance

Elements (oxygen, carbon, etc.)

 

Compounds (water, sodium chloride)

Examples of Solutions

Salt Water, Kool Aid, Soda,
Examples of Colloids
Milk, jello, fog
Examples of Suspensions
Orange juice, Salad Dressing, things that you have to shake before using to get them to mix.
Mole Ratio Formula
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Molarity Formula
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Molality Formula
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% Mass Formula
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% Volume Formula
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Freezing Point Depression Formula
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Boiling Point Elevation
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Most common solvent
Water
How does temperature effect solubility of solids? 
In most cases an increase in temperature will result in an increases the solubility of solids
How does temperature effect solubility of Gases?
An increase in temperature will result in a decrease in the solubility of a gas.
How does pressure effect solubility of solids and liquids?
Pressure has no effect on the solubility of solids and liquids.
How does pressure effect solubility of gases?
An increase in pressure will result in an increase in gas solubility.
What 3 things increase the rate of solubilty of a solid?

1. Mixing

2. Increase in Temperature

3. Breaking up the solute (increasing the surface area of the solute)

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