Sociology Practice Test 1 & Quiz #1

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theory
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a ______ is defined as a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict social events a) hypothesis b) law c) theory d) generalization
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symbolic interactionists
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In a study of education in the US, _________ would emphasize the daily activities and the various forms of communication between teachers and students. They would also examine the influence of peer groups and look at the reaction when school rules are broken or followed a) conflict theorists b) symbolic interactionists c) postmodern theorists d) functionalists
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true
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the sociological imagination helps us place personal troubles, such as losing one’s job or attempting suicide, into a larger social context, where we can distinguish whether and how personal troubles may be related to public issues a) true b) false
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false
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all of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology focus analysis at the macolevel, examining whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems
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counterculture
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a ________ is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks an alternative lifestyle a) subculture b) counterculture c) contraculture d) secondary culture
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society
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a __________ is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations a) culture b) society c) nation d) country
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personal trouble public issue
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One person’s inability to find a job may be an example of a ______, whereas widespread unemployment as a result of changes in the economy, such as the outsourcing of job, is an example of a _______ a) dysfunction ; psychological difficulty b) personal trouble ; public issue c) psychological difficulty; private issue d) public issue; personal trouble
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symbol
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A(n) ______ can be anything that meaningfully represents something else a) indicator b) symbol c) device d) character
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cultural relativism
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a potential danger of applying ______ is that taken to its extreme it may be used to justify practices that violate human rights a) positive ethnocentrism b) objectivism c) cultural relativism d) cultural diffusion
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symbolic interactionist
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according to the ______ perspective, society is the sum of the interactions of individual and groups a) functionalist b) conflict c) postmodern d) symbolic interactionist
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Herbert Spencer
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which of these early scientific thinkers first used the phrase \”survival of the fittest\” to explain his theory of society a) karl marx b) emile durkheim c) auguste comte d) herbert spencer
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conflict
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analyzing the tobacco industry, which theoretical perspective would most likely look at the conflict of interests between tobacco companies and public health interests a) functionalists b) interactionalists c) conflict d) developmental
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true
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neither society nor culture could exist without the other a) true b) false
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a folkway
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as you are rushing from one class to the next, you absentmindedly forget to hold the door open for someone. Which cultural components has your behavior violated a) a taboo b) a folkway c) a sanction d) social mores
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true
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In some respects, ethnocentrism may be considered a postive value a) true b) false
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Emile Durkheim
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________ studied suicide in what was probably the first sociological study to use scientific research methods a) Emile Durkheim b) Max Weber c) Karl Marx d) Charles Wright Mills
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social equality and reform
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in her work, sociologist Harriet Martineau was a strong advocate for a) building a stronger middle class b) the importance of cultural relativsim c) recognizing the forces for stability and change in society d) social equality and reform
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conflict
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According to the ______ perspective, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources a) functionalist b) interactionalist c) conflict d) developmental
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symbolic interactionist
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From the _______ perspectives, people create, maintain, and modify cultures as they go about their everyday activities, thereby continually negotiating their social realies a) symbolic interactionist b) conflict c) functionalist d) postmodern
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true
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culture works for humans the way that instincts work for other animals, guiding them through daily life a) true b) false
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public issues
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according to Mills, the sociological imagination enables one to distinguish between personal troubles that must be solved within the immediate social setting and ______ that affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at the societal level a) unimportant troubles b) non-private difficulties c) public issues d) societal dysfunctions
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microlevel
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a ______ analysis focuses on small groups rather than large scale social structures a) macrolevel b) mesolevel c) microlevel d) metalevel
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application of common sense or everyday understandings
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which of these is NOT part of the sociological appraoch to the study of society and social interaction a) systematic research techniques b) presentation of research findings c) search for patterns in human behavior d) application of common sense or everyday understandings
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functionalism
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______ states that societies develop social structures, or institutions that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy a) Postmodernism b) symbolic interactionism c) conflict theory d) functionalism
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countercultures
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groups such as the beatniks of the 1950’s, the drug enthusiasts of 1970’s, and members of religious cults reject some or many of cultures basic norms and values. These groups are called a) contracultures b) secondary cultures c) countercultures d) subcultures
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macrolevel
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A _______ analysis examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems a) macrolevel b) mesolevel c) microlevel d) metalevel
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false
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Sociologist George Herbert Mead was one of the first scholars to note that a dual heritage creates onflict for people of color. He called this duality double consciousness – the identity conflict of being black and American a) true b) false
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fatalistic
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Applying a functionalist perspective to suicide among teenagers, one would argue that suicide _______ when it results from feelings of hopelessness and a lack of meaningful choices a) anomic b) egoistic c) fatalistic d) altruistic
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sociological imagination
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sociologist C. Wright Mills coined the term ________ for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society a) conflict perception b) sociological imagination c) reality perception d) symbolic interaction approach
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true
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ALthough Weber emphasized that sociology should be value free, he did not believe that human behavior could e analyzed through application of the objective criteria used to study other natural phenomena a) true b) false
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latent
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when student go away to college they often make lifelong friends and may even find their spouse. According to Robert Merton, this would be a ______function of eduction a) manifest b) latent c) dysfunction d) affective
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Harriet Matineau
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British sociologist _______ translated and condensed Comte’s work and was noted for her study of social customs in Great Britain and the US a) Emily Durkhein b) Jane Addams c) Harriet Martineau d) Sarah Spencer
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folkways
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In the US _______ might include using a napkin when eating and saying excuse me after bumping into someone a) formal norms b) folkways c) mores d) laws
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counterculture
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\”The Order\” a white supremacist group, is opposed to most of the values shared by a majority of mainstream Americans. The Order has purchased weapons with the purpose of going after its enemies. This group is an example of a _______ a) secondary culture b) contraculture c) subculture d) counterculture
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false
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Language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns, and political systems are examples of material culture a) true b) false
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true
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human culture could not exist without symbols a) true b) false
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negative informal sanction
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during a church service, a parishioner talks loudly to the person sitting next to her. A man in another pew turns around, frowns at her and says \”SHHH\” this illustrates a ______ a) negative informal norm b) positive informal norm c) negative informal sanction d) prescriptive informal norm
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false
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Because cultures tend to be integrated, all parts of any given culture will tend to change at the same pace a) true b) false
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true
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Sociology emerged in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries a) true b) false
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false
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Culture is more important to the individual than it is for the society a) true b) false
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double consciousness
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Sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois observed that a dual heritage creates conflict for people of color: an identity conflict of being black and American. Du Bois referred to this duality as _______ a) double consciousness b) the dual-labor market c) the double bind d) functional conflict
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true
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Applying the broadest sense of the concept, most people in the US could be classified as members of one subculture or another a) true b) false
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conflict theorists
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In a study of homelessness in American society, _________ would emphasize the struggle between social classes, especially how the policies of the wealthy protect their interests while pushing certain groups into unemployment and homelessness a) conflict theorists b) functionalists c) symbolic interactionists d) postmodern theorists
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sociology
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AUGUST COMTE – french pholospher developed in 18/19 century systematic study of human society and social interaction
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false
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because mores govern behavior considered essential to the stability of society, they are always codified into laws and punishable with formal sanctions a) true b) false
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false
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American sociology grew along with European sociology during the 18th and 19th century a) true b) false
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manifest
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Jill attends college in order to study accounting so that she can work as an accountant. Merton would consider this a _____ function of college a) manifest b) latent c) dysfunction d) prerequisite
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true
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According to the functionalist perspective, societies develop social structures (institutions) that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy a) true b) false
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functionalists
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In a study of education in the US ______ would look at the role the schools play in maintaining the social system as a whole; how education provides the yound with skills they need alter in life; and how it transmits cultural values from one generation to the next a) symbolic interactionists b) postmodern theorists c) functionalists d) conflict theorists
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the founder of Hull House
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Jane Addams is best known as a) the first President of the American Sociological Society b) the founder of Hull House c) the first woman to conduct sociological research d) former First Lady of the US
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culture
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the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person from one generation to the next in a human group or society
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false
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symbols almost always have the sam emeaning across all the cultures of the world
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true
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culture includes everything a society creates and the rules its members are expected to follow
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false
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there are relatively large number of cultural universals
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material culture; nonmaterial culture
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phones are an example of ______, while communcation of the phone is an example of ________
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all of the above
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_______ are examples of the various ways different cultures around the world have developed to meet their basic survival needs a) cultural dishes b) arranged marriages c) traditional cultural clothing d) all of the above
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ethnocentrism
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an american going to japan and judging the cultural norm of eating fish eyeballs as disgusting without trying to understand why some Japanese eat fish eyeballs would be an example of
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false
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when using cultural relativism, one should always adopt the norms of the culture one is evaluating
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cultural relativism
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______ is the belief that the behavior and customs of any culture should be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards
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7000
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how many languages exist around the world
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folkways mores laws
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what are the three types of norms
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false
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nonverbal communication is not included in culture
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culture war
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the ________, or a polarization of society over controversial cultural elements, refers to the relatively recent political debates regarding social issues such as abortion, religious expression, gun control, and sexual orientation
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value
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_______ is a collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper – or bad, undesirable, and improper – in a culture
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folkway
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in american culture, not brushing your teeth would be an example of violating a
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true
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sociobiology is the systematic study of how biology affects human behavior
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true
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sanctions can be either positive rewards or negative penalities for behavior concerning a social norm
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all of the above
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_______ is another word for \”jargon\” is a functional way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its diversity a) argot b) dialect c) vernacular d) all of the above
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functionalist perspective
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macrolevel main components of society working together and running – if something isnt functioning, society will change it- 1) primary 2) secondary 3) tertiary
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conflict perspective
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sees main components of society as being conflict with one another for resources – society is organized by those who have power to organize it –
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symbolic interactions
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tries to explain how individuals shape their own lives and society through interaction with others 1) looking glass self 2) meads role taking
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hypothesis
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statement that forms over 2 variables
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research
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process of systematically collecting info for the purpose of testing an existing theory 1) quantitive 2) qualitive research designs: survey, questionaire, interview
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quantitative research
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data that can be measured numerically, objective – surveys, experiments analysis – participant observation – good for large sampling
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qualitative research
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focuses on interpretations to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships – human element
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survey
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poll researchers gathers facts to determine a relationship – open ended: most tragic thing that happened – both qualitative and quantitative
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secondary analysis
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HAWTHORNE EFFECT – *unintened influence* researchers use existing material and analyze data that were created by others; magazines, newspaper – content analysis = code the data and use hypothesis – requires a code book = collectively exhaustive
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field research
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study of social life and its natural setting – observation – participant observation = you join the group you are studying – ethnography = most thorough form combination of methods of observation
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experiment
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designed situations in which researchers study the impact of certain variables on subjectss/behaviorss – control group not exposed – NOT OFTEN USED
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ethical guidelines
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1) maintain objectivity and integrity 2) participants right to privacy 3) protect confidentiality 4) list who helped you finance experiments
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milgram experiment
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willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure
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cultural universals
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customs and practices that occur across all societies ex: food, clothing, shelter, marriage
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ethnocentrism
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your culture is better than others
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cultural relativism
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belief that behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the cultures standards ex: other cultures look down on America for nursing homes
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symbols
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anything that meaningfully represents something else -gestures: thumbs up, peace, smiley face – objects: medals, trophies, cross – words: verbal or written
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language
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set of symbols that expresses idead and enables people to think and communicate
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sapir whorf hypothesis
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language shapes the view of reality and its speakers – media gives information about the greater world
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norms
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established rules that guide our behavior 1) folkways: informal – picking your nose, wear deodorant 2) mores: formal/informal – prostitution, cheating 3) laws: formal – ex: dont kill, dont speed
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mores
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strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture – change over time and idffer based on culture – child neglect and abuse pre-marital sex
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laws
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formal standarized norms that have been enacted by legislators
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subculture
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segment of society that believes and shares distinct customs, rules, traditions – develops argot: language distinguished other than society
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counterculture
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when subculture opposes certain aspects of larger culture
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socialization
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life long process of social integration by which people aquire knowledge, attitudes, values, and behaviors essential for success participation in society – includes who we are, what we do, and all influences that have contributed ex: parents, friends, media
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agents of socialization
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family – most primary friends – important in regard to school tv – media schools – material and people you learn it from religious – mores of cultures have typically been instilled in new generations
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looking glass self
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COOLEY a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others
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Thomas Theorum
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what is perceived to be real, is real in its consequences – misinterpretation of why someone is laughing/gossip
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meads role talking
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process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from the persons point of view 1) preparatory stage – mimicking parent 2) play stage – pretending to play role of doctor 3) game stage
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stages of socialization
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primary: 0-4 years//observe people around you (at home) encouraged/discouraged from believing certain things, learn folkways and mores secondary: 5- young adult//new agents of socialization basic norms learned, reinforced, challenged tertiary: adult – death // more time maintaining relationships we decide norms to enforce others
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gender socialization
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aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being male or female in a group of society – society teaches us what it expects of man/woman – blue = boy pink = girl
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resocialization
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process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience – voluntary = coming back from war – involuntary = prison
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social imagination
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C. Wright Mills an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past
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narcotizing dysfunction
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the phenomenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the information, regarless of how compelling the issue
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opinion leader
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someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day to day personal contact and communication
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gatekeeping
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small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
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dominant ideoplogy
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a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
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culture lag
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a period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material connditions
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digital divide
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the relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low incomme groups , racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries
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anticipatory socialization
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processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
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degradation ceremony
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an aspecct of the socialization process within some total institutions in which people are subjects to humiliating rituals
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face work
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the efforts people mke to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
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sandwich generation
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the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children
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rite of passage
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a ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social postion to another
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impression management
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the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences

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