Sociology Midterm

Applied Sociology
the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values

Conflict Theory
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources

Functional Analysis
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism

Macro-Level Analysis
an examination of large-scale patterns of society

Micro-Level Analysis
an examination of small-scale patterns of society

Objectivity
total neutrality

Paradigms
philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

Positivism
the application of the scientific approach to the social world

Social Facts
Durkheim’s term for a group’s patterns of behavior

Social Solidarity
the social ties that bind a group of people together group

Sociological Imagination
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of others people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular intellect

Sociological Perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context

Sociology
the scientific study of society and human behavior

Symbolic Interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another

Theory
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another

Verstehen
a German word used by Weber that is, perhaps, best understood as “to have insight into someone’s situation”

Auguste Comte
often credited with being the founder of sociology, because he was the first to suggest that the scientific method be applied to the study of the social world.

Emile Durkheim
was responsible for getting sociology recognized as a separate discipline. He was interested in studying how individual behavior is shaped by social forces and in finding remedies for social ills. He stressed that sociologists should use social facts—patterns of behavior that reflect some underlying condition of society.

Karl Marx
believed that social development grew out of conflict between social classes; under capitalism, this conflict was between the bourgeoisie—those who own the means to produce wealth—and the proletariat—the mass of workers. His work is associated with the conflict perspective.

George Herbert Mead
was one of the founders of symbolic interactionism, a major theoretical perspective in sociology

Robert Merton
contributed the terms manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions to the functionalist perspective

Herbert Spencer
Another early sociologist, believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized forms. He was the first to use the expression “the survival of the fittest” to reflect his belief that social evolution depended on the survival of the most capable and intelligent and the extinction of the less capable. His views became known as social Darwinism.

Max Weber
most important contribution to sociology was his study of the relationship between the emergence of the Protestant belief system and the rise of capitalism. He believed that sociologists should not allow their personal values to affect their social research; objectivity should become the hallmark of sociology. He argued that sociologists should use Verstehen—those subjective meanings that people give to their behavior.

Case Study
an analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

Code of Ethics
a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

Content Analysis
applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

Control Group
an experimental group that is not exposed to the independent variable

Correlation
when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation

Dependent Variable
a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable

Empirical Evidence
evidence corroborated by direct experience and/or observation

Ethnography
observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

Experiment
the use of control and experimental groups, and dependent and independent variables to test causation

Experimental Group
the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable in a study

Hawthorne Effect
when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

Hypothesis
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory

Independent Variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable

Interview
direct questioning of respondents

Literature Review
a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

Operational Definition
the way in which a researcher measures a variable

Participant Observation (or Fieldwork)
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting

Population
the target group to be studied

Qualitative Research Method
research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing and interpreting people’s behavior

Quantitative Research Method
research in which the emphasis is placed on precise measurement, the use of statistics and numbers

Random Sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study

Reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results

Research Design
one of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures

Sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied

Scientific Method
an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions

Secondary Analysis
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers

Survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions

Validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it was intended to measure

Beliefs
tenets or convictions that people hold to be true

Conterculture
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the values of the broader culture

Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another

Cultural Lag
William Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

Cultural Relativism
not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms

Cultural Universal
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

Culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next

Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life

Ethnocentrism
the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors

Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced

Ideal Culture
the ideal values and norms of a people, the goals held out for them

Language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought

Material Culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

Mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values

Negative Sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal prison sentence or an execution

Nonmaterial Culture
a group’s ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)

Norms
the expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce behavior

Positive Sanction
a reward given for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize

Real Culture
the norms and values that people actually follow

Sanctions
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf’s hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving

Subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world

Symbol
something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with others

Symbolic
another term for nonmaterial culture

Taboo
a norm so strong that it brings revulsion if it is violated

Values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

Achieved Status
a position that is earned, accomplished, or involves at least some effort or activity on the individual’s part

Agricultural Societies
societies that rely on farming as a way of life

Alienation
an individual’s isolation from society, their work, and their sense of self

Anomie
a situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness

Ascribed Status
a position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life

Bourgeoisie
the owners of the means of production in a society

Class Consciousness
awareness of one’s rank in society

Collective Conscience
the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society

False Consciousness
a person’s beliefs and ideology are in conflict with their best interests

Feudal Societies
societies that operate on a strict hierarchical system of power based around land ownership and protection

Horticultural Societies
societies based around the cultivation of plants

Hunter-Gatherer Societies
societies that depend on hunting wild animals and gathering uncultivated plants for survival

Industrial Societies
societies characterized by a reliance on mechanized labor to create material goods

Information Societies
societies based on the production of nonmaterial goods and services

Institutionalization
the act of implanting a convention or norm into society

Iron Cage
a situation in which an individual is trapped by social institutions

Mechanical Solidarity
Durkheim’s term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks

Organic Solidarity
Durkheim’s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs

Pastoral Societies
societies based around the domestication of animals

Proletariat
the laborers in a society

Rationalization
a belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition

Role
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status

Role Conflict
conflict that someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role

Role Performance
the ways in which someone performs a role within the limits that the role provides; showing a particular “style” or “personality”

Role Strain
conflicts that someone feels within a role

Social Integration
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion

Status
the position that someone occupies in a social group

Status Set
all the statuses or positions that an individual occupies

Status Symbols
items used to identify a status

Thomas Theorem
William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas’ classic formulation of the definition of the situation: “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.”

Agents of Socialization
individuals or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life

Anticipatory Socialization
the process of learning in advance an anticipated future role or status

Degradation Ceremony
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to strip away someone’s position (social status); in doing so, a new self-identity is stamped on the individual

Gender
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity

Gender Role
the behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are female or male

Gender Socialization
the ways in which society sets children onto different paths in life because they are male or female

Generalized Other
the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self

Looking-Glass Self
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us

Peer Group
a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests

Resocialization
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

Self
the unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us

Significant Other
an individual who significantly influences someone else’s life

Socialization
the process wherein people come to understand societal norms and expectations, to accept society’s beliefs, and to be aware of societal values

Taking the Role of the Other
putting oneself in someone else’s shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act

Charles Horton Cooley
studied the development of the self, coining the term “the looking-glass self”

Sigmund Freud
developed a theory of personality development that took into consideration inborn drives (id), the internalized norms and values of one’s society (superego), and the individual’s ability to balance the two competing forces (ego)

Erving Goffman
studied the process of resocialization in total institutions

Lawrence Kohlberg
This psychologist studied the development of morality, concluding that individuals go through a sequence of developmental stages

George Herbert Mead
emphasized the importance of play in the development of the self, noting that children learn to take on the role of the other and eventually learn to perceive themselves as others do

Jean Piaget
studied the development of reasoning skills in children and identified four stages

Aggregate
a collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t interact or share a sense of identity

Authoritarian Leader
a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks

Bureaucracy
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications, and records

Category
people who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way

Clear Division of Labor
refers to the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform

Coercive Organizations
are organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital

Conformity
the extent to which an individual complies with group or societal norms

Democratic Leader
a leader who encourages group participation and consensus building before moving into action

Dyad
a two member group

Explicit Rules
the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized

Expressive Function
a group function that serves an emotional need

Expressive Leader
a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone’s emotional wellbeing

Formal Organization
a secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives

Group
any collection of at least 2 people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of aligned identity

Hierarchy of Authority
a clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy

Iron Rule of Oligarchy
the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration

In-Group
a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of their identity

Instrumental Function
being oriented toward a task or goal

Instrumental Leader
a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks

Laissez-faire
a hands off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions

Leadership Function
the main focus or goal of a leader

Leadership Style
the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members

McDonaldization
the increasing presence of the fast food business model; the process by which ordinary aspects of life are rationalized and efficiency comes to rule them, including such things as food preparation

Meritocracy
a bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit – proven and documented skills

Normative or Voluntary Associations
a group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships and voluntary organizations

Out-Group
a group that an individual is not a member or, and may even compete with

Primary Group
small, informal groups of people who are closest to us

Rationality
using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs

Rationalization of Society
a widespread acceptance of rationality and social organizations that are built largely around this idea

Reference Group
groups to which an individual compares themselves

Secondary Group
larger and more impersonal groups that are task focused and time limited

Total Institution
a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society, and the society is mostly cut off from them

Triad
a 3 member group

Cyber-Feminism
application to the promotion of feminism online

Design Patents
patents that are granted when someone has invented a new and original design for a manufactured product

Digital Divide
the uneven access to technology around race, class, and geographic lines

E-Readiness
the ability to sort through, interpret, and process digital knowledge

Evolutionary Model of Technological Change
a break through in one form of technology that leads to a number of variations, from which a prototype emerges, followed by a period of slight adjustments to the technology, interrupted by a break through

Gatekeeping
the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount

Knowledge Gap
the gap in information that builds as groups grow up without access to technology

Media Globalization
the worldwide integration of media through the cross cultural exchange of ideas

Media
all print, digital, and electronic means of communication

Neo-Luddites
those who see technology as a symbol of the coldness of modern life

New Media
all interactive forms of information exchange

Plant Patents
patents that recognize the discovery of new plant types that can be asexually reproduced

Technological Diffusion
the spread of technology across borders

Technological Globalization
the cross-cultural development and exchange of technology

Technology
the application of science to solve problems in daily life

Technophiles
those who see technology as symbolizing the potential for a brighter future

Utility Patents
patents that are granted for the invention or discovery of any new ad useful process, products, or machine

Weber’s proposal of antipositivism influenced sociological researchers to ______ while examining different social worlds.

a) Gain a subjective understanding of human cultural norms
b) Manipulate test subjects into answering difficult questions
c) Methodically predict situational outcomes
d) Reject antiquated notions of privacy and consent

a) Gain a subjective understanding of human cultural norms

Please define C. Wright Mill’s sociological imagination.

a) The theory that man evolved slowly over time.
b) How individuals understand their own and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure.
c) The process of analyzing human behavior based solely on statistics.
d) A series of interviews asking subjects about their sleep habits and dreams.

b) How individuals understand their own and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure.

Sociology is defined as the:

a) Systematic study of society and social interaction.
b) Quantitative analysis of social transgressions.
c) Qualitative analysis of human phenomenon.
d) Theoretical examination of life’s origins.

a) Systematic study of society and social interaction.

Eleanor is researching the effect social media has on worldwide political awareness and revolution. Felix is examining the effect World of Warcraft has on the romantic relationships of middle-aged men in his metro area. Eleanor’s analysis is _____, while Felix’s analysis is _____.

a) They are both macro-level.
b) Macro-level; micro-level
c) They are both micro-level.
d) Micro-level; macro-level

b) Macro-level; micro-level

_____ view society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society.

a) Conflict Theorists
b) Structural Functionalists
c) Symbolic Interactionists
d) Social Individualists

b) Structural Functionalists

After weeks of protest in Zuccotti Park, NYC’s “Occupy Wall Street” divided into two camps: one composed of higher income protestors, and one composed of lower-income protesters. A ______ would be most interested in the relationship and nature of day-to- day exchanges between the two groups.

a) Structural functionalist
b) Feminist conflict theorist
c) Conflict theorist
d) Symbolic interactionist

d) Symbolic interactionist

A hypothesis can be defined as:

a) A way to explain different aspects of social interactions
b) A testable proposition
c) An attempt to explain large-scale relationships
d) Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

b) A testable proposition

Verstehen is defined by the text as:

a) To understand in a deep way.
b) To compare and contrast social facts.
c) To require proof of interpretation.
d) To maintain a moral conscience.

a) To understand in a deep way.

____ believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production and greatly favored ____.

a) Durkheim; Communism
b) Max Weber; Positivism
c) Karl Marx; Communism
d) Comte; Antipositivism

c) Karl Marx; Communism

The process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the society that shapes that behavior (or, the concept that the individual and society are inseparable) is referred to as:

a) Latent functions
b) Dramaturgical analysis
c) Dynamic equilibrium
d) Figuration

d) Figuration

Quincia is studying how of the lack of comprehensive sex education is affecting a small, rural town in North Dakota. She spends two months in the town, observing and interviewing the townspeople. Quincia is conducting a(n)

a) Secondary data analysis
b) Ethnography
c) Experiment
d) Case study

b) Ethnography

What is the importance of interpretive framework?

a) It relies on statistics to determine causal relationships.
b) It eliminates the need for a literature review.
c) It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world.
d) It prevents researchers from making unethical decisions.

c) It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world.

Kevin conducted a study on whether the length of the line at a local Starbucks affected how well the customers enjoyed their coffee after receiving it. Malcolm conducted the study at his local Starbucks, and found the same results. Kevin’s study had a high level of _____.

a) Literacy
b) Reliability
c) Interpretation
d) Validity

b) Reliability

In order to better understand the sorority pledging process at her university for her sociology thesis, Carmen pledges with a popular sorority. This is an example of _____.

a) Dependent variables
b) Secondary data analysis
c) Participant observation
d) Literature review

c) Participant observation

Thomas wants to better understand the trends in literacy rates in Baltimore city over the past 50 years using Baltimore city data. What type of research should Thomas conduct?

a) Field research
b) A survey
c) An experiment
d) Secondary data analysis

d) Secondary date analysis

Which of the following is NOT an example of a sociological hypothesis?

a) The more CDs Jamilla buys, the less money she has in her bank account
b) The more positive reinforcement a parent gives a child, the better they do in school.
c) The more study halls students are given during the school day, the worse they perform on their tests.
d) The longer an inmate spends in prison, the more difficult it is for him to adapt to the outside world.

a) The more CDs Jamilla buys, the less money she has in her bank account

Which of the following is not a step in the scientific method?

a) Report results
b) Research existing sources
c) Formulate a hypothesis
d) Receive corroboration from the field

d) Receive corroboration from the field

Which of the following is not a purpose of the American Sociological Association’s code of ethics?

a) To ensure the financial gain of the researchers
b) To foster professionally responsible scholarship in sociology
c) To guarantee the safety of their participants
d) To maintain value neutrality

a) To ensure the financial gain of the researchers

John wants to study whether a larger number of laptops available to students at his school lead to higher grades. Choose the independent and dependent variable.

a) Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: John
b) Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: Number of laptops
c) Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades
d) Independent variable: John; Dependent variable: Grades

c) Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades

A class of third graders is told that the assistant principal will be visiting their class to confirm their teacher’s reports of bad behavior. When the principal visits, the students behave perfectly. This is an example of ________.

a) The Authority Effect
b) The Hawthorne Effect
c) The Regressive Effect
d) The Cognizant Effect

b) The Hawthorne Effect

Kurt and Mitch visit an Amish village on a class trip. “Let’s see if we can round up some old radios and appliances and drop them off for them later this week. I think they’ll appreciate it. They just don’t understand what they’re missing.” Mitch rolls his eyes. Kurt’s perspective is an example of _______.

a) Material culture
b) Ideal culture
c) Behavioral normativity
d) Cultural imperialism

d) Cultural imperialism

The term language can be defined as:

a) The exchange of gestures and signals for the purpose of reaching a consensus.
b) A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.
c) Gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words that help people understand the world.
d) Communication grounded in ideals, norms, and values.

b) A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.

Many Americans pay for haircuts, trips to the dentist, or transportation on the metro and bus systems. These actions support the notion of capitalism, an example of _____.

a) Material culture
b) Non-material culture
c) A cultural universal
d) The counterculture

b) Non-material culture

Which of the following is an example of cultural relativism?

a) Ingrid becoming upset over the course language used in the Australian Outback.
b) Andy marrying a woman who does not practice his religion, though his parents disprove.
c) Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meals with the local tribe she is studying.
d) Joseph protesting the Running of the Bulls while visiting Pamplona.

c) Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meals with the local tribe she is studying.

Which of the following is an example of a cultural universal?

a) Marrying the partner whom your parents have chosen for you
b) Incest taboos
c) Holding hands with your best friend
d) Putting your cell phone on silent during a Broadway production

b) Incest taboos

Which of the following is an example of an informal sanction?

a) Lilly being sent to prison because she failed to pay her taxes.
b) Sarah buying Lady Gaga tickets from a scalper because the show sold out.
c) Brett illegally downloading the new Black Keys album because he couldn’t afford to buy it.
d) The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee club.

d) The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee club.

Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?

a) The yuppie craze of the 1980’s
b) The hippie movement of the 1960’s
c) The Kardashian obsession of the 2010’s
d) The disco invasion of the 1970’s

b) The hippie movement of the 1960’s

What group defines themselves through a rejection of the mainstream:

a) Hipsters
b) Hepcats
c) Hippies
d) Beatniks

a) Hipsters

Xenocentrism is:

a) The opposite of cultural relativism
b) The opposite of cultural universalism
c) The same as cultural imperitivism
d) The opposite of ethnocentrism

d) The opposite of ethnocentrism

MTV’s widely-watched TV series The Jersey Shore is an example of _____, while the obscure works of playwright Sam Shepard are an example of ______.

a) Jersey culture; low culture
b) Popular culture; high culture
c) High culture; low culture
d) High culture; popular culture

b) Popular culture; high culture

Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

a) Structural Functionalism
b) Symbolic Interactionism
c) Feminist Theory
d) Conflict

a) Structural Functionalism

Peer groups are important to adolescents because:

a) They provide the second major socialization experience outside the realm of their families.
b) They help exert dependence among adolescents.
c) They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents’ parents.
d) They rank higher in importance to adolescents’ than parental influence.

c) They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents’ parents.

Education is important to society because:

a) It teaches children facts about the world in which they live.
b) It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces.
c) It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations.
d) All of the above

d) All of the above

Katrina, age 5, and Sharon, age 4, love to play together while their mothers chat. Katrina has a toy iron and washing machine. She and Sharon spend hours “washing” and “ironing” her baby doll’s clothes, just like they see their mothers do. Which of George Herbert Mead’s stages of development are Katrina and Sharon exemplifying?

a) The play stage
b) The preparatory stage
c) The game stage
d) The “generalized other” stage

a) The play stage

Whose study described the differences in the way that boys and girls view morality?

a) Lawrence Kholberg
b) Carol Gilligan
c) Sigmund Freud
d) Erik Erikson

b) Carol Gilligan

In an effort to control a total institution, and to create a community of sameness, inmates are forced to strip down, be searched by police officers, and given identical uniforms before entering prison. This is an example of _______.

a) A graduation ceremony
b) An entry test that must be passed
c) A degradation ceremony
d) An exit test that must be passed

c) A degradation ceremony

Émile Durkheim’s much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was:

a) It defined the differences between sociology and psychology
b) It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field.
c) It earned Émile Durkheim the title “Father of Sociology” so that other sociologists would have a role model.
d) It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie.

a) It defined the differences between sociology and psychology

According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, when do humans begin to think about the feelings of other people and begin to see the world through other people’s eyes?

a) After they graduate from college.
b) In their teenage years
c) When they first go to school.
d) When they are born.

b) In their teenage years

It is parent-teacher conference day at Littleton Elementary School. Jimmy’s teacher is anxious to meet his parents and discuss his habit of disrupting the class. When the teacher expresses her concern that Jimmy is not being socialized properly, his dad insists that he was the same way at Jimmy’s age and that disrupting the class is natural for the children in his family. Jimmy’s teacher and father are arguing about which fundamental sociological theory?

a) Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development
b) Freud’s theory of self-development
c) George Herbert Mead’s theory of self-development
d) Nature vs. Nurture

d) Nature vs. Nurture

Some sociologists have pointed out that gender roles are often determined by how a society socializes young boys and girls. Which of the following is an example of socializing a child into a gender role?

a) Allowing Joey to sleep with his “blankey.”
b) Taking Jimmy to the aquarium.
c) Letting Kim wear pants to school.
d) Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with.

d) Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with.

The term technological diffusion is defined as:

a) The breakdown of communication between technological innovators and the general public.
b) A form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly.
c) The spread of technology across borders.
d) The global lack of access to online media.

c) The spread of technology across borders.

Before the dawn of social media, powerful TV networks and widely circulated newspapers had great influence over the news stories that were reported to the public. This is referred to as:

a) The great divide
b) Gatekeeping
c) Social control
d) Discriminatory journalism

b) Gatekeeping

Caleb attended a private high school, which gave each student access to a personal laptop and iPhone. Ted attended a poorly funded public school, which had few computers and outdated technology. When Caleb gets to college, he’s more prepared than Ted for coursework which includes computer and online material. This occurrence is an example of:

a) Digital divide
b) Technological pause
c) Computer lag
d) New media

a) Digital divide

Which of the following is NOT an example of new media?

a) Twitter
b) Facebook
c) Barnes and Noble
d) The Kindle

c) Barnes and Noble

What is a negative risk of media globalization?

a) The spread of computer literacy.
b) Social media spreading awareness about social causes.
c) Accessible technology being made available to remote societies.
d) Governments censoring information for their benefit.

d) Governments censoring information for their benefit.

Which theorist would be most interested in who controls the media, and the ways in which the dominant race and class minimizes the media presence of the lower classes and other races?

a) A functionalist
b) A symbolic interactionist
c) A conflict theorist
d) A cyberfeminist

c) A conflict theorist

Susan has the newest iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Mac. When a new Apple product is released, Susan stands in line for hours to be the first to buy it. Susan is a(n):

a) Neo-Luddite
b) PC person
c) Republican
d) Technophile

d) Technophile

The term media globalization can be defined as:

a) The cross-cultural development and exchange of computer hardware.
b) The inability of geographically rural areas to access new media.
c) The governmental sanction allowing worldwide access to media education.
d) The worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas.

d) The worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas.

Which of the following is an example of planned obsolescence?

a) Jerome spills coffee on his MacBook, and it ruins the keyboard.
b) Sarah’s iPod breaks just as the newest iPod Nano is being introduced.
c) Target offers a “buy two, get one free” sale on Blue Ray discs.
d) Evangeline refuses to purchase a Droid or an iPhone because her Razor phone has been in perfect shape for the past 6 years.

b) Sarah’s iPod breaks just as the newest iPod Nano is being introduced.

Last week, a major politician was caught in a political scandal. The story was featured on the front page of the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, CNN.com, and was the lead story on NBC, ABC, and CBS nightly news. This is referred to as:

a) Fragmentation
b) Illiteration
c) Homogenization
d) Telecommunication

c) Homogenization

When Michael starts high school, he joins the basketball team. He begins to look to his teammate friends for cues on how to behave at dances, in the hallways, and even in the classroom. Michael’s basketball team is serving as Michael’s _____.

a) Secondary group
b) Aggregate
c) Out-group
d) Reference group

d) Reference group

A famous socialite is court-ordered to enter a rehabilitation center to eliminate her drug addiction. The socialite is about to become a member of a:

a) Paparazzi organization
b) Coercive organization
c) Utilitarian organization
d) Voluntary organization

b) Coercive organization

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a bureaucracy:

a) Explicit rules
b) Clear division of labor
c) Personality-based promotion
d) Impersonality

c) Personality-based promotion

In the 2010 film, The Social Network, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was portrayed as a leader who was goal-oriented, issuing orders and assigning tasks. Which of the following leadership styles did Zuckerberg likely use?

a) Oligarchy
b) Authoritarian
c) Democratic
d) Laissez-faire

b) Authoritarian

Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic:

a) Chorus members of the campus’s production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building’s first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor.
b) Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter.
c) The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.
d) Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.

d) Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.

Which of the following does NOT constitute cyberbullying?

a) Posting embarrassing images of a person online
b) Hacking someone’s account and pretending to be him or her
c) Sending threatening text messages
d) Sending threatening letters to someone’s home

d) Sending threatening letters to someone’s home

Justin enrolls in a local community college so he can one day become an engineer. Justin is about to become a member of a:

a) Coercive organization
b) Utilitarian organization
c) Paparazzi organization
d) Voluntary organization

b) Utilitarian organization

Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader.

a) Authoritarian
b) Democratic
c) Republican
d) Laissez-faire

d) Laissez-faire

The term meritocracy is defined by the text as:

a) A status-based regime in which advancement is unlikely.
b) A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills.
c) The authoritarian devalue of an employee .
d) The removal of personal feelings from a professional situation.

b) A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills.

When Kevin backpacks across Europe after his high school graduation, he is surprised to find Burger Kings, H&Ms, and even Wal-Mart stores in the foreign cities. This is an example of:

a) The McDonaldization of Society
b) A bureaucracy
c) Counter-culture
d) In-Group/Out-Group dynamic

a) The McDonaldization of Society

Which of the following is NOT an example of self-fulfilling prophecy?

a) Charlotte is an intelligent teenager, but told by her step-sisters and cousins that she’s destined to a life of poverty and failure. Charlotte begins to do poorly in school, and eventually drops out.
b) Morgan overhears a professor predicting the economic recession will prevent entry-level graduates from finding gainful employment. Morgan goes on interviews but doesn’t bother preparing, convinced it’s a waste of time. Morgan appears unprofessional and is not hired.
c) Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.
d) Though encouraged by his parents to audition for Julliard, Jose believes he isn’t good enough to attend. After his audition, he expresses this reluctance to the admissions committee. They don’t admit him due to his lack of certainty.

c) Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.

On the first day of high school, Kaitlin overhears a group of girls calling her “goth” and “emo.” She soon begins to don more black clothing, dark makeup, and seek out friends who dress the same. This is an example of ______.

Institutionalization
Role performance
Role strain
Ascribed status

Role performance

Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:

a) The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves.
b) The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat.
c) The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.
d) The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois.

c) The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.

Which of the following is NOT one of Marx’s four types of alienation?

a) Alienation from others
b) Alienation from one’s religion
c) Alienation from the product of one’s labor
d) Alienation from one’s self

b) Alienation from one’s religion

Charles Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:

a) People base their images on how they think other people see them.
b) The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures.
c) Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image.
d) Personal identity isn’t influenced by outside social forces.

a) People base their images on how they think other people see them.

As industrialization began to boom, Durkheim believed people were more susceptible to anomie because:

a) Collective norms are weakened.
b) Society no longer has the support of the collective consciousness.
c) Specialization of labor lead to alienation.
d) All of the above

d) All of the above

Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.

a) Collective conscience
b) The iron cage
c) Anomie
d) Bourgeoisie

a) Collective conscience

Please place the following societies in chronological order:

a) Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural
b) Pastoral; Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural; Agricultural
c) Pastoral; Agricultural, Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural
d) Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Agricultural; Horticultural

a) Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

The Agricultural Revolution is often referred to as “dawn of civilization” because:

a) Tribes became nomadic, traveling to various locations in search of sustenance.
b) Societies began to form where rainfall was plentiful; groups were able to cultivate plants instead of living nomadic lifestyles.
c) Animals were first domesticated as a resource for survival.
d) Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.

d) Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.

____ societies relied on permanent tools for survival, and expanded due to innovations such as crop rotation and fertilizer.

a) Industrial
b) Hunter-gatherer
c) Agricultural
d) Feudal

c) Agricultural

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