Sociology—Midterm

Social Sciences
_____; disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and the functions of human society in a scientific manner.
Sociology
_____; social science; study of human society and social behavior from a [group] perspective.
Social Interaction
_____; how people relate to one another and influence each other’s behavior.
Social Phenomena
_____; observable facts or events that involve human society.
Anthropology
_____; social science; the comparative study of past and present cultures.
Psychology
_____; social science; studies behavior and mental processes. Focuses on an [individual’s] behavior, rather than a group.
Social Psychology
_____; division of psychology that studies how the social environment affects an individual’s behavior and personality.
Economics
_____; social science; the study of the production, distribution and the consumption of goods; the analysis of the choices people make in an effort to satisfy their needs and wants.
Political Science
_____; social science; study of the principles, organization and operation of gov’ts. Also focuses on gov’t and its impact of people’s lives.
History
_____; social science; studies people and events of the past.
Sociological Perspective
_____; a worldview that involves looking at social life in a scientific and systematic way.
Social Imagination
_____; the ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal life.
A. Comte
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• one of the first scholars to apply the methods of physical science to the study of society.
• coined the word “sociology”.
• considered the founder of sociology.
H. Martineau
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• conducted early sociological studies in Britain & US.
• believed scholars should try to improve society, instead of just study it.
• translated Comte’s work into English.
H. Spencer
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• applied principles of biology to society.
• coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”.
• popularized evolutionary theory of social change.
Social Darwinism
_____; belief that only the fittest societies would survive over time, leading to a general upgrading of the world as a whole.
K. Marx
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• emphasized the primary role that conflict plays in social change and advocated revolution to speed up the process of change.
• ideas led to the development of the conflict perspective in sociology.
É. Durkheim
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• described society as a set of interdependent parts, w/ each part serving a specific function.
• believed sociologists should focus on the observable social phenomena.
• influential in the development of the functionalist perspective in sociology.
Function
_____; the consequence that an element of society produces for the maintenance of its social system.
M. Weber
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• developed the concept of the [Ideal Type].
• believed that sociology should attempt to understand the meaning behind an individual’s actions.
• his work influenced the development of interactionist perspective in sociology.
Verstehen
_____; Principle of attempting to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions.
Ideal Type
_____; a description comprised of the essential characteristics of an aspect of society.
Jane Addams
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• Hull House Studies.
• believed analyzing social problems was the first step to solving them.
W.E.B. Du Bois
_____; Sociologist: Who Am I?!
• used community studies to underscore the significance of race in American society.
• believed sociologists should be involved in social reform as well as academic study.
Theories
_____; explanations of the relationship among particular phenomena.
Theoretical Perspective
_____; school of thought, a general set of assumptions about the nature of things.
Functionalist Perspective
_____; view of society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system.
Dysfunction
_____; the negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system.
Manifest Function
_____; the intended and recognized consequence of some element of society.
Latent Function
_____; the unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society.
Conflict Perspective
_____; sociological viewpoint; focus on the forces in society that promote competition and change.
Feminist Perspective
_____; sociological viewpoint within [Conflict Perspective]; focuses on gender inequality.
Interactionist Perspective
_____; sociological viewpoint; focuses on how individual’s interact with one another in society.
Symbol
_____; anything that represents something else.
Symbolic Interaction
_____; Interactionists’ focus on how people use symbols when interacting. This process has 3 elements: meaning, language and thought.
Macrosociology
_____; level of analysis used by the Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives; involves the study of large-scale systems or society as a whole.
Microsociology
_____; level of analysis used in the Interactionist Perspective; involves looking at small-group settings and the everyday face-to-face interactions among group members.
Globalization
_____; the development of economic, political, and social relationships that stretch worldwide
Scientific Method
_____; an objective, logical, and systematic way of collecting empirical data and arriving at reasoned conclusions.
Hypothesis
_____; a statement that predicts the relationship between two or more variables.
Variable
_____; a characteristic that can differ from one individual, group, or situation to another in a measurable way.
Correlation
_____; exists when a change in one variable is regularly associated with a change in another variable.
Survey
_____; allows sociologists to collect data on attitudes and opinions from large numbers of people.
Sample
_____; a small number of people drawn from a population.
Historical Method
_____; involves examining any materials from the past that contain information of sociological interest.
Content Analysis
_____; analyzing sources by counting the number of times a particular word, phrase, idea, event, symbol, or other element appears in a given content.
Participant Observation
_____; researchers become directly involved in the situation under investigation.
Case Study
_____; an intensive analysis of a person, group, event, or problem.
Experiment
In a _____, data is gathered under controlled conditions set by the researcher.
Statistical Analysis
_____; entails analyzing data that have already been collected to determine the strength of the relationship that may exist between two or more variables.
Culture
_____; all the shared products of human groups. Including physical objects+beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group.
Material Culture
The physical objects that people create and use form a group’s _____.
Ex: automobiles, books, buildings, clothing, computers, and cooking utensils.
Nonmaterial Culture
Abstract human creations form a group’s _____.
Ex: beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, rules, skills, and work practices.
Society
_____; a group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity.
Values
_____; shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable.
Norms
_____; shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations,
Folkways
_____; Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior, but do not have great moral significance attached to them.
Ex: do your hw, do not let the flag touch the ground, etc.
Mores
_____; norms that have great moral significance attached to them.
Ex: Do not Maurer, be dishonest, commit fraud, etc.
Laws
_____; written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the gov’t.
Cultural Universals
_____; common features that are found in all human cultures.
Subculture
_____; a group with its own unique values, norms, and behaviors that exist within a larger culture.
Counterculture
_____; a group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns.
Ethnocentrism
_____; the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups.
Cultural Relativism
_____; the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture.
Cultural Diffusion
_____; the process of one culture spreading its traits—ideas and beliefs—as well as material objects—from one society to another.
Cultural Lag
_____; a situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture.
Cultural Leveling
_____; the process through which cultures become more and more alike.
Folklore
Self-Fulfillment
_____; a commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential.
Self-fulfillment
Values such as leisure, physical fitness, and youthfulness are grouped under the term _____.
Personality Disorder
_____; a long term and deeply ingrained pattern of socially unacceptable behavior that is harmful to the person who displays it and to others.
Narcissism
_____; extreme self-centeredness.
Traditional American Values
_____; a core set of values that majority of the many diverse groups that make up American society share.
(AV)
Personal Achievement
_____; doing well at school + work is important. Gaining wealth + prestige is a sign of success.
(AV)
Progress and Material Comfort
_____; history is marked by ongoing process, and this progress improves people’s lives.
(AV)
Work
_____; discipline, dedication, and hard work are signs of virtue.
(AV)
Individualism
_____; hard work, initiative, and individual effort are keys to personal achievement.
(AV)
Efficiency and Practicality
_____; every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality; getting things done in the shortest amount of time is important.
(AV)
Morality and Humanitarianism
_____; judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong; this sense of morality also involves helping the less fortunate.
(AV)
Equality and Democracy
_____; everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in gov’t.
(AV)
Freedom
_____; personal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech, and press, are central to the American way of life.
Social Structure
_____; the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction.
Status
_____; a socially defined position in a group or in a society.
Role
_____; the bahavior—the rights and obligations—expected of someone occupying a particular status.
Ascribed Status
_____; a status assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control. Not based on individual’s talents. Something your born with.
Ex: female, 17 years old, African American, etc.
Achieved Status
_____; status acquired by individual through their direct efforts. Efforts include knowledge, special skills, or abilities .
Master Status
______; a status that tends to rank above all others, plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his/her social identity.
Role Set
______; the different roles attached to a single status.***
Role Conflict
_____; occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status.
Role Strain
_____; occurs when one person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single status.
Role Exit
_____; role performance does not match the expectations; process people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity.
Social Institution
_____; when the statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more the basic needs of the society.
Exchange
_____; whenever people interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions.
Reciprocity
_____—the idea that if you do something for someone that person owes you something in return—is the basis of exchange.
Exchange Theory
_____; the belief that people are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people.
Competition
_____; occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.
Conflict
_____; the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harem another person.
Cooperation
_____; occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person.
Accommodation
______; a state of balance between cooperation and conflict.
Compromise
______; occurs when two parties at odds each give up something to come to a mutual agreement. (accommodation)
Truce
_____; temporarily bring a halt to competition/conflict until compromise can be reached. (accommodation)
Mediation
_____; 3rd party who helps two parties reach compromise.* (accommodation)
Arbitration
_______; a third party, between to opposing parties, makes a binding decision on both.* (accommodation)
Group
_____; a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.
Subsistence Strategies
_____; the ways societies use technology to provide for the needs of their members. Three Categories: preindustrial, indistrial, and postindustrial.
Preindustrial Society
_____; food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor, is the main economic activity.
Division of Labor
_____; the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities—becomes more complex.
Barter
_____; the excahange of goods or services
Industrial Society
_____; a society where emphasis is on the production of manufactured goods.
Postindustrial Society
_____; society where the economic enphasis is on the provision of information and services rather than on manufacturing.
Mechanical Solidarity
_____; when people share the same values and perform tye same tasks, they become united in a commn whole.
Organic Solidarity
_____; refers to the impersonal social relationships that arise with increased job specialization.
Gemeinschaft
_____; the German word meaning “community.”
Gesellschaft
_____; the German word for “society”
Aggregate
_____; people gathered in the same place and the same time, but have no organization or lasting patterns of interaction.
Ex: Passengers on a plane, the crowd at a baseball game, etc.
Social Category
_____; a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or common status; no interaction needed.
Ex: students, women, teenagers, etc.
Dyad
_____; the smallest group possible, a group with two members.
Triad
_____; a three person group.
Formal Group
_____; a group in which the structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined.
Informal Group
_____; a group where there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.
Primary Group
_____; a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis.
Secondary Group
_____; a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.
Reference Group
_____; any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt.
In-Group
_____; a group that a person belongs to and identifies with.
Out-Group
_____; any group that a person does not belong to or identify with.
Electronic Community
In a(n) _____ people interact with each other regularly on the Internet.
Social Network
_____; the web of relationships formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people.
Leader
_____; people who influence the opinions and attitudes of others.
Formal Organization
_____; term used by sociologists to describe a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve a specific goal.
Bureacuracy
_____; a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.
Rationality
_____; involves subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control.
Voluntary Association
_____; a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest.
Alienation
_____; the feeling of powerlessness in, and disassociation from, social relationships.
Oligarchy
Iron Law of Oligarchy
_____; the tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people.
Personality
_____; the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characterizes of an individual.
Heredity
_____; the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children.
Social Environment
_____; a term that refers to contact with other people.
Instinct
_____; an unchanging biologically inherited behavior pattern.
Sociobiology
_____; the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior.
Aptitude
_____; a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a specific body of knowledge.
Socialization
_____; the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior of a society.
Self
_____; your conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates your and your environment from other members of society.
Looking-glass Self
_____; the interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others.
Role-taking
_____ forms the basis of socialization process by allowing us to anticipate what others expect of us.
Significant Others
_____; specific people, such as parents , siblings, relatives, and others, who directly influence our socialization.
J. Locke: The Tabula Rosa
Who + What?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Each person is born a blank slate. Humans, who acquire their personalities through interaction, can be molded into any type of character.
C. H. Cooley: The Looking-Glass Self
Who + What?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Humans form images of themselves based on how they seems to others. We imagine how we appear to others, judge whether they see us as we see ourselves, and use our judgements to form our sense of self.
G. H. Mead: Role-Taking
What + Who?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development; beyond seeing ourselves as others do, we begin to anticipate what others expect.after a 3 step process, we take on the roles of others.
E. Goffman: Impression Management
What + Who?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Social interaction is like performing for an audience. We change our personalities based on what impression we want to convey.
Generalized Other
_____; internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society.
I
_____; the unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of personality and self-identity.
Me
_____; the part that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society—the socialized self.
Dramaturgy
According to _____, social interaction is like a drama being performed on stage.
Impression Management
_____; an effort to present the self well and manage the impressions that the audience receives.
Agents of Socialization
_____; specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place.
Peer Group
_____; a primary group composed of individuals of roughly equal age and similar social characteristics.
Mass Media
_____; instruments of communication that reach large audiences w/ no personal contact between those sending the info and those receiving it.
Resocialization
_____; a break w/ past experiences and the learning of new values and norms.
Total Institution
_____; a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a specific period of time and are subject to tight control.
Ex: prisons, monasteries, psychiatric hospitals, etc.
Socialization
_____; the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior of a society.
Self
_____; your conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates your and your environment from other members of society.
Looking-glass Self
_____; the interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others.
Role-taking
_____ forms the basis of socialization process by allowing us to anticipate what others expect of us.
Significant Others
_____; specific people, such as parents , siblings, relatives, and others, who directly influence our socialization.
J. Locke: The Tabula Rosa
Who + What?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Each person is born a blank slate. Humans, who acquire their personalities through interaction, can be molded into any type of character.
C. H. Cooley: The Looking-Glass Self
Who + What?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Humans form images of themselves based on how they seems to others. We imagine how we appear to others, judge whether they see us as we see ourselves, and use our judgements to form our sense of self.
G. H. Mead: Role-Taking
What + Who?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development; beyond seeing ourselves as others do, we begin to anticipate what others expect.after a 3 step process, we take on the roles of others.
E. Goffman: Impression Management
What + Who?
Theory of Self’s Emergence and Development;
Social interaction is like performing for an audience. We change our personalities based on what impression we want to convey.
Generalized Other
_____; internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society.
I
_____; the unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of personality and self-identity.
Me
_____; the part that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society—the socialized self.
Dramaturgy
According to _____, social interaction is like a drama being performed on stage.
Impression Management
_____; an effort to present the self well and manage the impressions that the audience receives.
Agents of Socialization
_____; specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place.
Peer Group
_____; a primary group composed of individuals of roughly equal age and similar social characteristics.
Mass Media
_____; instruments of communication that reach large audiences w/ no personal contact between those sending the info and those receiving it.
Resocialization
_____; a break w/ past experiences and the learning of new values and norms.
Total Institution
_____; a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a specific period of time and are subject to tight control.
Ex: prisons, monasteries, psychiatric hospitals, etc.
Adolescence
5.1
_____;
– defined as the period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood.
– the physical and social maturing from childhood to adulthood.
Puberty
5.1
_____; the physical maturing, from childhood to adulthood, that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction.
Anticipatory Socialization
5.1
_____; learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future.
Anticipatory Socialization
A child playing house is a form of what?
Puberty
_____ occurs in all human societies.
Adolescence
_____ does not exist as a concept in many parts of the world.
• Biological Growth & Development
• An Undefined Status
• Increased Decision Making
• Increased Pressures
• Search of Self
What are the five characteristics of adolescence?
Anticipatory Socialization
_____; a part-time job, club membership, and dating.
Dating
5.2
_____; the meeting of people as a romantic engagement, most commonly found in societies that allow individuals to choose their own marriage partners.
Courtship
5.2
_____; the meeting of people as a romantic engagement with the express purpose of marriage.
Homogamy
5.2
_____; the tendency of people to marry individuals with social characteristics similar to their own.
Continuum
_____; a coherent whole characterized as a collection, sequence, or progression.
Coeducational
_____; the education of both sexes of student at the same institution.
Early History
_____;
Men married when their fathers gave them enough land to support a family. Therefore parents controlled the timing and circumstance of marriage.
Formal Courtship
_____;
Ultimate goal of marriage. Young men ask for permission to visit with young women. Couples meet in the young women’s house and are closely supervised.
The Industrial Revolution
_____;
Time when young people leave farms to move to cities. Courtship declines and dating begins to develop.
Coeducational Public Schools
_____ increased social integration between young men and women through events such as school dances.
The Automobile
_____; helped increase dating among young people. By the 50’s, young people went in _____ on supervised dates to movies and other events.
Contemporary Dating
_____;
Dating among young people is more diverse than ever. Young people have more flexibility to arrange meetings in a wide range of places.
Abstinence
5.3
_____; to eschew from sexual behavior as a teenager with other teenagers.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
5.3
_____; ***
Drug
5.3
_____; any substance that changes mood, behavior, or consciousness.
Social Integration
5.3
_____; the degree of attachment people have to social groups or to society as a whole.
Life Stucture
[6.1]
_____; the combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize an individual.
Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, and Late Adulthood
[6.1]
_____, _____, and _____ are the three basic eras of adulthood.
Early Adulthood
[6.1]
_____; period of adulthood when the most important task is to leave home, both physically and mentally.
• Early Adult Transition
• Entering the Adult World
• Age 30 Transition
• Settling Down Period
Middle Adulthood
[6.1]
_____;
• Midlife Transition
• Entering Middle Adulthood
• Age 50 Transition
• Culmination of Middle Adulthood
Late Adulthood
[6.1]
_____;
• Late Adult Transition
• Late Adulthood
Novice Phase
[6.1]
_____; the first three periods of the early adulthood era. Major task at this time is to make a place for themselves in the adult world and to construct a life structure that fits them and works on the adult world***.
Mentor
[6.1]
_____; fosters a person’s development by believing in the person and helping the person achieve his/her dreams.
Apprentice
[6.1]
The break its a mentor is important b/c it allows individuals to see themselves as more than “_____ adults.”
_____; a person acquiring a trade or skills under supervision.
Work
[6.2]
_____; involves performing all of the tasks necessary to produce goods and provide services that meet human needs.
Labor Force
[6.2]
_____; by definition, consists of all individuals age 16 and older who are employed in paid positions or who are seeking paid employment.
Informal Economy
[6.2]
_____; unofficial economic activities that take place w/o gov’t approval and outside of mainstream business and industry.
OR
People who are not paid for their services, such as homemakers, are part of an _____ and are not considered part of the labor force.
Profession
[6.2]
_____; a high-status occupation that requires specialized skills and knowledge obtained through formal education.
Unemployment
[6.2]
_____; the situation that occurs when a person does not have a job but is actively seeking employment.
Unemployment Rate
[6.2]
_____; the percentage rate of the civilian labor force that is unemployed but is actively seeking employment.
Outsourcing
[6.2]
_____; a practice that involves moving business units and jobs across national boundaries, where operating and labor costs are less expensive.
Gerontology
[6.3]
_____; scientific study of the processes and phenomena of aging.
Social Gerontology
[6.3]
_____; study of the nonphysical aspects of the aging process.
Young-Old
[6.3]
_____;
age group-65 to 74
% of Population- 6.4
Concerns-adjustment to retirement is a key developmental issue
Middle-Old
[6.3]
_____; age group-75 to 84
% of Population- 4.3
Concerns
• physical health
• mental functioning
• dependency
• death issues
Old-Old
[6.3]
_____; age group-85+
% of Population- 1.8
Concerns
• physical health
• mental functioning
• dependency
• death issues
Dementia
[6.3]
_____; progressive deterioration of the cognitive and intellectual functions of the brain, such as memory loss.
OR
For some people aging is accompanied by marked mental decline, or _____.
Alzheimer’s Disease
[6.3]
_____; the most common for of dementia among elderly people; an organic condition that results in the progressive deterioration of brain cells.
Dependency
[6.3]
_____; the shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on others for physical or financial assistance.
[8.1]
Social Stratification
_____; the division of society into categories, ranks, or classes.
[8.1]
Social Inequality
_____; the unequal sharing of scarce resources and social rewards.
[8.1]
Caste System
_____; a system of social stratification in which resources and rewards are distributed on the basis of ascribed statuses.
[8.1]
Exogamy
_____; marriage outside one’s social category.
[8.1]
Endogamy
_____; marriage within one’s social category.
[8.1]
Class System
_____; a system of social stratification in which distribution of scarce resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved status.
[8.1]
Means of Production
_____; the materials and methods used to produce goods and services.
[8.1]
Bourgeoisie
_____; the owners of the means of production in a capitalist society.
[8.1]
Proletariat
_____; the workers who sell their labor in exchange for wages.
[8.1]
Social Class
_____; a group of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.
[8.1]
Wealth
_____; a combination of an individual’s assets—the value of everything the person owns—and income—money earned through salaries and investments.
[8.1]
Power
_____; the ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consent.
[8.1]
Prestige
_____; the respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy an individual receives from others.
[8.1]
Socioeconomic Status
_____; a rating that combines social factors such as level of education, occupational prestige, and place of residence w/ the economic factor of income in order to determine an individual’s
Real active position in a stratification system.
[8.1]
Synthesize
_____; to blend
[8.2]
Social Advancement
_____; the process of moving up through the ranks of a class system.
[8.2]
Reputational Method
_____; those from a community are asked to rank others in their community based on their character and lifestyle.
* suitable for small communities
* findings not used to make judgments on other communities
[8.2]
Subjective Method
_____; individuals are asked to determine their own social rank.
[8.2]
objective Method
_____; sociologists define social class by income, occupation, and education.
* statistical basis proves less biased.
* problem-selection and measurement of social factors.
[8.2]
Social Mobility
_____; the movement between or within social classes.
* Subsets: Horizontal and Vertical Mobility
[8.2]
Horizontal Mobility
_____; movement within social class or stratum. When one moves from JobA to JobB, both with equal social ranking.
[8.2]
Vertical Mobility
_____; the movement (up or down) between social classes or strata.
* Subsets: Intragenerational and Intergenerational Mobility.
[8.2]
Intragenerational Mobility
_____; study of the changes in social position during one person’s life.
[8.2]
Intergenerational Mobility
_____; study of status differences between generations in the same family.
The
Upper
Class
_____;
The
Upper Middle
Class
The
Lower Middle
Class
The
Working
Class
The
Working
Poor
The
Underclass

Get access to
knowledge base

MOney Back
Guarantee
No Hidden
Charges
Unlimited
Knowledge base
Become a Member