Sociology MIdterm Martinez

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Sociology
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the study of human behavior in society
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George Simmel
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developed the concept of \”critical distance,\” which refers to being able to detach from the situation at hand to view things critically
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verstehen
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understanding behavior to which people give meaning.
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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wrote in 1901 \”the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line. was deeply troubled by the racial divisiveness in society.
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Sociologists believe that persistent problems in the U.S. are
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embedded in society
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Sociology is a/n _____ discipline, meaning the conclusions are based on systematic observations.
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empirical
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The specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation are called
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norms
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Folkways
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the ordinary customs of different group cultures.
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taboos
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The strictest norms in any society are called _____.
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beliefs
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Shared ideas that help bind people in society together are called
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dominant culture
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the culture of the most powerful group.
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The difference between subcultures and countercultures is that
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countercultures reject and defy the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
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Functionalist
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theorists are most likely to emphasize that cultural norms and beliefs integrate people into groups and create social bonds.
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Which type of theorist is most likely to emphasize that culture serves the interest of powerful group in society?
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conflict theory sees society as organized around the unequal distribution of resources and held together through power and coercion.
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A researcher who lives among the homeless in an effort to understand their norms is an example of:
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participant observation
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Reasoning that begins with specific observations about which one draws conclusions is called _____.
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inductive reasoning
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How is doing a replication study useful?
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A replication study can indicate what changes have occurred since the original study was conducted
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In a study of the impact of parental prejudice on the attitudes of their child, the attitudes of the child are the _____.
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dependent variable
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Concepts
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abstract ideas that are potentially measureable
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Hawthorne effect
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subjects of research altering their behavior if they know they are being studied
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When choosing a research method, the most important thing for sociologists to consider is
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what type of sociological question is being investigated
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In a controlled experiment, the group that is exposed to the variable being studied is called _____, the group not being exposed is called _____.
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the experimental group; the control group
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William Foote Whyte’s \”Street Corner Society\” is an example of which kind of research?
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participant observation
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When used as data for sociological analysis, national opinion polls, and census data are all considered _____.
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secondary sources
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The ______ is the overall logic of the research project, included what observational method will be used.
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research design
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Roles
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are the expected behaviors associated with a given status in society.
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Which of the following is true regarding socialization?
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The socialization experience differs for individuals based on their social location.
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Social scientists and others debate whether humanness is naturally occurring or socially created. This is called the ______ debate.
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nature-nurture
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Sociologists note that the way society is organized and people’s lives within it are the result of social definitions and processes. In other words, sociologists state that our lives are socially
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constructed
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Within sociology, the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations is called
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social control
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How do psychoanalytic theory and social learning theory differ from each other?
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Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the internal process of the unconscious mind; social learning theory stresses response to external stimuli.
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Conflict Theory
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is interested in how social inequality affects the development of an individual’s identity.
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From a symbolic interactionist perspective, the key to the development of self is _____.
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reflection and interpretation
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An age cohort refers to
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an aggregate of people born during the same time period
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Which of these would interest a sociologist who prefers macroanalysis of social interaction?
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how laws governing family leave have affected families in the U.S.
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Sociologists use the term ______ to describe the order established in social groups at any level.
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Social organization
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Functionalist theorists contend that social institutions
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assure the stability and continuance of society.
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Society is a network of
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social structures
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In a society where mechanical solidarity exists
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individuals share the same values, hold the same things sacred, and frequently play the same roles.
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Which of the following reflects a gemeinschaft society
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A small community’s tomato festival
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Sociologists distinguish six different types of societies based on
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the complexity of their social structure and level of technology
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Postindustrial societies are characterized by
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the production of information services
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When the roles in one’s role set clash with one another, the result is role _____.
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conflict
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A condition wherein a single role brings conflicting expectations is called role _____.
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strain
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Erving Goffman’s analysis of interaction views the participants as actors on a stage. This perspective is called the _____ model of social interaction.
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dramaturgy
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Social exchange theory analyzes social interaction as:
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a rational balancing act involving perceived costs and benefits of a given behavior.
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Sociologists who study patterns of social interaction use macroanalysis.
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false
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Social institutions cannot be observed directly, but their impact and structure may be seen.
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true
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Why is it important for sociologists to have a shared definition of groups?
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Having a definition enables sociologists to understand the behavior of people in society and how to predict people’s behavior in groups.
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_____ promote a sense of \”us;\” ____ promote a sense of \”them.\”
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in groups; out groups
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When a student joins an organization it will provide which of the following?
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instrumental needs
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What was the outcome of the classic prison simulation done by Zimbardo and his associates?
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Without being told to do so, students playing the role of guards behaved sadistically toward the students in the role of prisoners.
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Despite being warned of danger, NASA scientists proceeded with the launch of the space shuttle Challenger that exploded during launch. Sociological analysis of this situation finds it was caused by
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a combination of risky shift and organizational ritualism.
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Alienation refers to the
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psychological separation of a person from an organization
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Alexis de toqueville
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felt that despite the individualism of Americans, they had little independence of mind.
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Agustus Comte
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the founding father of sociology. He believed that society could be studied scientifically. This approach is known as positivism.
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Harriet Martineu
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wrote about how to observe behavior as a participant.
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Emile Durkheim
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focused on the forces that hold society together in moral cohesion.
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Karl Marx
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saw social class as a fundamental dimension of society that shapes social behavior.
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Max Weber
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was concerned with ideas and how they shaped society.
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Jane Addams
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developed housing projects for immigrants, slum dwellers, and other dispossessed groups.
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Ida B wells
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crusaded against lynching and for women’s rights.
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Functionalism
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emphasizes the stability and integration in to explain society through cultural, political, and economic factors.
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Symbolic Interaction theory
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emphasizes the role of individuals in giving meaning to social behavior, thereby creating society.
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Feminist Theory
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is the analysis of women and men in society and is intended to improve women’s lives.
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What is the sociological significance of the mass media in culture?
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Elements of mass media have enormous influence on groups’ beliefs and values.
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How do cultures change?
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Change in societal conditions, cultural diffusion, innovation, and the imposition of change by dominant groups cause cultures
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is sociological research scientific?
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Sociological research is derived from the scientific method. The research process involves several steps.
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can sociology be value free?
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Sociological research strives for objectivity while recognizing that the values of the researcher may have some influence on the work.
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social learning theory
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the formation of identity is learned response to external social stimuli.
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agents of socialization
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They include the family, the media, peers, sports, religious institutions, and schools.
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social institutions
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family education work and the economy political institution (or state) religion health care mass media organized sports military
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mechanical solidarity
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members play similar roles within the society, share the same values, and hold the same things sacred.
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organic solidarity
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people have many different roles and roles are highly differentiated.
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Gemeinschaft
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communities have \”we\” feeling, strong family relationships, and simple social institutions.
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Gesellschaft
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societies with fewer personal ties. These societies have an elaborated division of labor.
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Role sets
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are all the roles occupied by the person at a given time.
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Role Conflict
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When two or more roles impose conflicting expectations.
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Role Strain
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is conflicting expectations within a single role.
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beauarcracies
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Division of labor and specialization Hierarchy of authority Rules and regulations Impersonal relationships Career ladder (technical expertise) Efficiency
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anomie
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when normal social regulations break down, or when normal everyday life is disrupted and people live in a state of formlessness. Anomic suicide is suicide committed by people when the disintegrating forces in the society make individuals feel lost or alone.
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Altruistic suicide
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is when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces.
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Egoistic
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occurs when people feel totally detached from society.
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Retreatism
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neither the goal nor the means are available to select.
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Ritualism
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the goal is unrealistic and the means are available
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Rebellion
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new goals and new means substitute traditional ones.

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