Sociology Chapter 7: Deviance and Social Control

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Deviance
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Any behavior that departs form societal or group norms. Ranges from criminal behavior (recognized by almost all members of a society as deviant) to wearing heavy makeup (considered deviant by some religious groups.
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Negative Deviance
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involves behavior that under conforms to accepted norms
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Positive Deviance
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behavior that overconforms to social expectations
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Deviant
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person who violates one or more of society’s most highly valued norms
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Social Control
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means for promoting conformity to norms
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Anomie
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social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent
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Strain Theory
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deviance is most likely to occur when there is a discrepancy between a culturally prescribed goal and a legitimate means of obtaining it
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Cultural Transmission Theory
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Deviance is part of a subculture; it is transmitted through socialization
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Differential Association Theory
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deviant behavior-like religious choice, political affiliation, or sport preference-is learned, principally, in primary groups
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Recidivism
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a return to crime after prison-makes sense in the light of cultural transmission theory because ex-convicts normally return to the significant others, primary groups, and reference groups through which they originally learned to be deviants
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Labeling Theory
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theory that deviance exists when some members of a group or society label others as deviants
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Primary Deviance
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person engages only in isolated acts of deviance
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Secondary Deviance
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refers to deviance as a lifestyle and personal identity
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Stigma
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an undesirable characteristic or label used by others to deny the deviant full social acceptance
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White-collar Crime
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any crime committed by respectable high-status people in the course of their occupations
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Occupational Crime
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refers to illegal acts by people either in their employment or in their personal financial
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Corporate Crime
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subspecies of occupational crime; crime committed on behalf of organizations
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Crime
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acts in violation of the law-as including a narrow range of behavior
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Juvenile Crime
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refers to violations of the law committed by young people less than eighteen years old
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Terrorism
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illegal us of violence to intimidate a government, or a group, or an individual in pursuit of a political, religious, economic, or social goal.
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Transnational Terrorism
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involves terrorists in one country committing terrorist acts against targets in another country
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Domestic Terrorism
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occurs against targets in the same country as the perpetrators
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Criminal Justice System
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comprises the institution and processes responsible for enforcing criminal law
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Deterrence Approach
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emphasizes intimidation, using the threat of punishment to discourage criminal actions
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Incarceration Approach
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Removes criminals from society
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Rehabilitation Approach
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approach to crime control that attempts to resocialize criminals

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