Sociology: Chapter 6 Social Group

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Social Group
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two or more people who identify and interact with one another
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Primary Group
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A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
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Secondary Group
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A large an impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
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Instrumental Leadership
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emphasizes the completion of task.
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Expressive Leadership
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focuses on collective well-being
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Solomon Asch
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conducted a classic experiment that showed the power of groups in generating conformity
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What did Stanely Milgram studied?
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Obedience
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Irving Janis said tat a number of U.S foreign policy errors were the result of group
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conformity
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Groupthink
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the tendency of group member to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
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Reference Groups
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serve as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
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Ingroup
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A social group commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty
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Outgroup
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A social group which one feels competition or opposition
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Dyad
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A social group with two members
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Triad
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A social group with three members
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Social Network
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A web of weak social ties
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Formal organizations
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large secondary groups that are organized to achieve their goals efficiently
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Utilitarian Organization
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one that pays people for their effort.
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Normative Organization
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one that pursues some goal believe to be morally worthwhile
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Coercive Organization
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One that forces people to join
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Bureaucracy
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an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
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Promote efficiency
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1. Specialization 2. Hierarchy of offices 3. Rules and Regulations 4. Technical competence 5. Impersonality 6. Formal, written communications.
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Organization Environment
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Factors outside the organization that affect its operation
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Bureaucratic alienation
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A person’s sense of powerlessness, meaningessness, and general cynicism toward the organization
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Bureaucratic Ritualism
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A preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point that it prevents the organization from achieving its goals
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Bureaucratic Inertia
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The tendency of the organization to perpetuate themselves
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Scientific mangement
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the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization

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