sociology chapter 5

The success story of the McDonald’s organization explains
a. that “fast food” is really not served very efficiently.
b. that the McDonald’s idea never caught on abroad.
c. why so many small businesses do not succeed.
d. that the organizational principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our social life.
d. that the organizational principles of mcdonalds have come to dominate our social life
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
a. a dyad
b. a social group
c. a network
d. a crowd
b social group
What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as “college students”?
a. a crowd
b. a group
c. a category
d. a network
c cateogry
A temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact is a
a. crowd.
b. group.
c. category.
d. population.
crowd
Imagine you are watching several dozen passengers sitting in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane. These people are an example of a
a. crowd.
b. group.
c. category.
d. network.
crowd
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as
a. an instrumental group.
b. an expressive group.
c. a primary group.
d. a secondary group.
primary group
According to Deborah Tannen, what traits make up a “female advantage”?
a. There are more women than men graduating from college.
b. Women place greater emphasis on communication.
c. Women are stricter managers.
d. White women are overrepresented in senior management positions.
b women place greater emphasis in communication
Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group?
a. the peer group
b. the work group
c. the family
d. the play group
family
Assume you are one of many people assembled at a university graduation ceremony. The term that best describes this gathering is a
a. peer group.
b. category.
c. primary group.
d. secondary group.
secondary group
A secondary group is a social group that
a. we experience late in life.
b. is impersonal and engages in some specific activity.
c. engages in many very important activities.
d. is generally much smaller than a primary group.
is impersonal and engages in some specific activity
One characteristic of secondary groups is
a. their small size.
b. weak emotional ties between members.
c. strong emotional ties between members.
d. their long-term duration.
weak emotional ties between members
An example of a primary group is
a. a family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday.
b. carpenters gathering at a work site.
c. a student government meeting.
d. a reunion of the graduating class of 1977.
a family gathered to celebrate religious holiday
An example of a secondary group is
a. a fraternity chapter meeting on campus.
b. a Microsoft Corporation awards banquet.
c. parents meeting with their daughter and her coach.
d. girl scouts at a cookout.
b a microsoft corporation awards banquet
In general, we see a(n) _______ as a means to an end; we see a(n) _____ as an end in itself.
a. expressive group; instrumental group
b. crowd; category
c. secondary group; primary group
d. primary group; secondary group
secondary group; primary group
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
a. democratic leadership
b. authoritarian leadership
c. expressive leadership
d. instrumental leadership
d instrumental leadership
_________ _______refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being.
a. Democratic leadership
b. Authoritarian leadership
c. Expressive leadership
d. Instrumental leadership
c expressive leadership
You are part of a task force with a group leader who has a distant relationship with the group members and who is concerned with getting the job done. Which type of leader does your task force have?
a. a laissez-fair group leader
b. a democratic leader
c. an expressive leader
d. an instrumental leader
d instrumental leader
In your group, the leader is skilled at using humor to reduce tension and lighten serious moments. Which type of leader does your group have?
a. a democratic leader
b. a laissez-faire leader
c. an expressive leader
d. an instrumental leader
expressive leader
Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?
a. authoritarian leadership
b. democratic leadership
c. laissez-faire leadership
d. expressive leadership
a authoritarian leadership
Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?
a. authoritarian leader
b. democratic leader
c. laissez-faire leader
d. expressive leader
b democratic leader
What type of leaders downplay their own power, letting group members function more or less on their own?
a. authoritarian leaders
b. democratic leaders
c. laissez-faire leaders
d. instrumental leaders
laissez-faire leader
Solomon Asch’s research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed that
a. people seek out friends with whom they tend to agree.
b. people defined as “leaders” have great power over their subjects.
c. people tend to see most things differently.
d. group membership has the power to generate conformity.
d group membership has the power to generate conformity
According to the findings of Solomon Asch,
a. many people are willing to compromise their own judgment to avoid being seen as different by others.
b. many people have weak self-images and seek social approval.
c. ordinary people are often not truthful to people who are in power.
d many people are unwilling to compromise their own judgment to please authority figures.
a many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different by others
Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed
a. people become angry when others disagree with them.
b. the ability to withstand pain varies with cultural background.
c. people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals.
d. that ordinary people are surprisingly independent in their judgments.
c people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
During “groupthink”
a. a group shares information widely and makes an effective policy decision.
b. a group leader makes a decision without consulting anyone and the decision turns out to be a bad one.
c. group members seek consensus, discouraging people from speaking freely and end up making a decision based on limited information.
d. a group gets different ideas from everyone and is unable to come up with any decision at all.
group members seek consensus discouraging people from speaking freely and end up making a decision based on limited information
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?
a. reference group consciousness
b. groupthink
c. in-group thinking
d. tunnel vision
groupthink
During the process of groupthink
a. group members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional.
b. group members encourage each other to see the issue from multiple points of view.
c. group members treat reaching consensus as less important than encouraging everyone to speak up openly.
d. The group seeks diverse members and ends up being unable to reach a consensus
group members quickly settle on a position and then they treat other possibilities as oppositional
. A social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions is called a
a. peer group.
b. reference group.
c. out-group.
d. dyad.
b reference group
Samuel Stouffer’s study of soldier morale during World War II led to what conclusion?
a. The greater the chances of getting ahead, the happier people are.
b. Happiness is a matter of personal values and standards.
c. Whatever their situation in absolute terms, people evaluate themselves and
make comparisons to others in specific reference groups.
d. The less chance for promotion, the higher soldiers’ morale.
c whatever their situation in absolute terms people evaluate themselves and make comparisons to others in specific reference groups
Which type of social group commands a member’s esteem and loyalty?
a. an in-group
b. an out-group
c. a reference group
d. a social network
in group
A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition is
a. an in-group.
b. an out-group.
c. a reference group.
d. a social network.
an out group
A social group with only two members is called a
a. primary group.
b. dyad.
c. triad.
d. bond.
dyad
Simmel interpreted the dyad as
a. less stable than groups with many members.
b. involving less intense interaction.
c. less meaningful than the triad.
d. more stable than groups with many members.
less stable than groups with many members
A “triad” is
a. any pyramid-shaped organization.
b. a trial marriage.
c. a social group with three members.
d. a temporary social group.
a social group with three members
If you want your social group to be open to any and all people as new members, you would encourage a
a. socially diverse membership.
b. large group size.
c. group that is physically segregated.
d. small group size.
a socially diverse membership
Which sociological concept refers to a number of weak social ties among people who have little common identity and little interaction?
a. primary group
b. triad
c. network
d. dyad
network
Social networks are typically
a. built on primary relationships.
b. “fuzzy” groups made up of people we “know of” rather than those we know well.
c. characterized by a strong sense of membership.
d. characterized by boundaries defining membership.
b fuzzy groups made up of people we know of rather than those we know well
The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is a classic example of bureaucratic
a. ritualism.
b. alienation.
c. innovation.
d. inertia.
ritualism
The development of social media means that
a. fewer people in the United States participate in social networks.
b. it is no longer important for people in our society to be “well connected.”
c. in the computer age, typical social networks now link more people.
d. our population is increasingly isolated socially with smaller social networks.
c
Formal organizations are
a. small groups with elected leaders.
b. large secondary groups with a goal orientation.
c. networks that have many members.
d. only agencies that are part of the government.
b large secondary groups with a goal orientation
Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a “voluntary association”?
a. normative organizations
b. coercive organizations
c. utilitarian organizations
d. All of these are correct.
a normative organizations
A prisoner would consider a maximum-security prison
a. a normative organization.
b. a coercive organization.
c. a utilitarian organization.
d. a voluntary organization.
coercive organizations
Which type of formal organization do people join in order to obtain money and other material benefits?
a. normative organization
b. coercive organization
c. utilitarian organization
d. voluntary organization
c utilitarian organization
The concept “McDonaldization” of society refers to
a. McDonald’s organizational principles moving to dominate all of society.
b. the spread of McDonald’s restaurants around the world.
c. society becoming more filled with red tape and inefficiency.
d. the less and less predictable nature of today’s society.
a mcdonalds organizational principles moving to dominate all society
In brief, what does Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s research show?
a. Organizations must “open up” their structure in order to bring out the best in their employees.
b. Employees who hustle are the ones who get ahead.
c. Organizational structure has little to do with employee performance.
d. Formal organizations typically become oligarchies.
organizations must open up their structure in order to bring out the best in their employees
The concept “bureaucracy” refers to
a. a large, normative organization.
b. any source of inefficiency in organizational operation.
c. an organizational model that operates informally.
d. an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
d an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
One of the traits Max Weber noted about bureaucracy was that it
a. favors family members over strangers.
b. arranges workers in a flat organizational hierarchy.
c. emphasizes cultural traditions.
d. provides workers with highly specialized jobs.
provides workers with highly specialized jobs
In the “iron law of oligarchy,” Robert Michels stated that bureaucracy always means
a. inefficiency.
b. the few rule the many.
c. formal rules and regulations.
d. alienation.
the few rule many
Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?
a. Organizations create social inequality.
b. Organizations create conflict among workers.
c. Organizations create alienation.
d. Organizations create conformity.
c organizations create alienation
What is Robert Merton’s term for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals?
a. bureaucratic ritualism
b. bureaucratic alienation
c. bureaucratic innovation
d. bureaucratic inertia
bureocratic ritualism
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