Sociology Chapter 3 : Social Stratification

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Social Stratification
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Ranking of people and the rewards they receive based on objective criteria, often including wealth, power and / or prestige.
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Income
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Money received for work or through investments.
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Wealth
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All your material possessions, including income.
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Power
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Ability to carry out your will and impose it on others.
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Delegated
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Means given or assigned.
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Power Elite
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Small group of people who hold immense power.
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Prestige
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Level of esteem (respect & admiration) associated with one’s status and social standing.
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Upper or Elite Class
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Social class that is very small in number and holds significant wealth.
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Upper Middle Class
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Social class that consists of high-income members of society who are well educated but don’t belong to the elite super-wealthy class.
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Lower Middle Class
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Social class that consists of those who have moderate incomes.
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Working Class
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Social class generally made up of people with high school certificates and lower levels of education.
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Underclass
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Social class living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods that are characterised by four components: poverty, family disruption, male unemployment, and lack of individuals in high-status occupations.
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Transitional Poverty
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Temporary state of poverty that occurs when someone loses a job for a short time.
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Marginal Poverty
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State of poverty that occurs when a person lacks stable employment.
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Residual Poverty
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Chronic and multigenerational poverty.
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Absolute Poverty
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Poverty so severe that one lacks resources to survive.
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Relative Poverty
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State of poverty that occurs when we compare ourselves to those around us.
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Social Mobility
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Ability to change social classes
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Horizontal Mobility
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Refers to moving within the same status category
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Vertical Mobility
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Refers to moving from one social status to another.
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Intragenerational Mobility
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Occurs when an individual changes social standing, especially in the workforce. (Within the same generation).
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Intergenerational Mobility
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Refers to the change that family members make from one social class to the next through generations.
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Structural Mobility
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Occurs when social changes affect large numbers of people.
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Exchange Mobility
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Concept suggesting that each social class contains a relatively fixed number of people.
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Meritocracy Argument
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States that those who get ahead do so based on their merit.

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