Sociology Chapter 1 review

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The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.
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Sociological Perspective.
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What element did C. Wright Mills attribute as being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior?
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External influences.
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When sociologists’ group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.
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Social location.
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The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people’s lives, particularly how people are influenced by ________.
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society
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The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ________.
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C.Wright Mills
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Of the following, which discipline is most appropriately classified as a natural science?
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Biology
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The social science discipline that concentrates on the study of artifacts, social structure, ideas, values, and forms of communication is ________.
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Anthropology (Study of culture)
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The first goal of each scientific discipline is to ________.
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explain why things happen.
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The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.
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Auguste Compte
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What is the method to use objective and observation to test theories
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The scientific method.
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What was the social event that most influenced Auguste Comte to explore patterns within society and become interested in what holds society together?
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The French revolution
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The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.
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Social Darwinism
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The term \”survival of the fittest,\” which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ________.
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Herbert Spencer
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The theorist who is sometimes referred to as \”the second founder of sociology\” was ________.
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Herbert Spencer
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Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.
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Class conflict
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The Wall Street Journal has declared that the three greatest modern thinkers were ________, ________, and ________.
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Marx, Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein.
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Who predicted that there would be a classless society once the working class united and began a revolution was ________.
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Karl Marx
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The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and the ________.
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Bourgeoisie and Ploretariat
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The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?
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Social integration
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Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ________.
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Protestant ethic
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Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ________ was the force most responsible for social change.
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economic, religion
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According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.
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capitalism
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What quality did Max Weber stress as being the hallmark of social research?
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neutrality
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The scientific method requires ________, repeating a study in order to compare the new research results with the original findings.
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replication
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Max Weber used the term Verstehen to mean ________.
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Grasp by insight (German term)
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Durkheim referred to patterns of behavior that characterize a social group as ________.
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Social fact
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Sociology first took root as an academic discipline at _______ in 1890.
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The University of Kansas
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The university that dominated sociology as an academic discipline when Albion Small headed the department was ________.
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The University of Chicago
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What did Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess, and George Herbert Mead have in common?
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They were among the first faculty members in the sociology department at the University of Chicago.
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What distinction did sociologist Frances Perkins hold in American history?
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First woman to hold a presidential cabinet position.
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Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demonstrated in her work as co-founder of Hull-House, ________ was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
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Jane Addams.
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The book published by W. E. B. Du Bois in 1899 that analyzed how African Americans in a major United States city coped with racism was ________.
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The Philadelphia Negro
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The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP, was ________.
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W.E.B. Dubois
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Karl Marx – class conflict Harriet Martineau – slavery and women oppression Jane Addams – minority exploitation
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Conflict theory speaks of wealth redistribution.
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