Sociology Ch. 7

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Deviance
Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
Behavioral Deviance
Based on a person’s intentional or inadvertent actions

Example: In intentional deviance by drinking too much or robbing a bank, or inadvertent deviance by losing money in a casino or laughing at a funeral

Stigma
As any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person’s social identity that it disqualifies the person from little social acceptance
Crime
Behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions
Juvenile Delinquency
Refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
Status Offense
Are illegal only when committed by younger people

Example: Cutting school or running away from home

Social Control
Refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws to discourage deviance
What does internal social control take place through?
Socialization
What does external social control involve?
The use of negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformists
Criminology
The systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons
According to functionalists,
A certain amount of deviance contributes to the smooth functioning society
What did Emile Durkheim believe?
That deviance is rooted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people
Anomie
A social condition in which people experience a sense of futility because social norms are weak, absent, or conflicting
According to Durkheim, as social integration decreased,
Deviance and cime increased
What are the three important functions of deviance that contemporary functionalists suggest?
1. Deviance clarifies rules
2. Deviance unites a group
3. Deviance promotes social change
Robert Merton’s Strain Theory
People feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals
According to Merton, what are the five ways in which people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them?
Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism, and Rebellion (CIRRR)

Everything except conformity is an adaption of deviance

Conformity
Occurs when people accept cultural approved goals and pursue them through approved means
Innovation
Occurs when people accept society’s goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them

Examples: Theft and drug dealing

Ritualism
Occurs when people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means for achieving them

Example: Seek to maintain the respect of others by being a “hard worker” or a “good citizen”

Retreatism
Occurs when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them
Rebellion
Occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them and advocate an alternative set of goals or means

Example: Rebels may use violence (such as rioting) or many register their displeasure with society through acts of vandalism or graffiti

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin’s Theory
Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through illegitimate channels
What are the three basic gang types that Cloward and Ohlin identified?
Criminal, conflict, and retreatism
Criminal Gangs
Devoted to theft, extortion, and other illegal means of securing an income

Example: Running drug houses and selling drugs on street corners make it possible for them to support themselves and their families as well as purchase material possessions to impress others

Conflict Gangs
Emerge in communities that do not provide either legitimate or illegitimate opportunities

Example: Seek to acquire a “rep” by fighting over “turf” and adopting a value systems of toughness, courage, and similar qualities

Retreatist Gangs
Are unable to gain success through legitimate means and are unwilling to do so through illegal ones. As a result, the consumption of drugs is stressed, and addiction is prevalent
What do the different branches of conflict theory say about deviance?
– Power as the central factor in defining deviance and crime: people in positions of power maintain their advantage by using the law to protect their interests
– Relationship between deviance and capitalism
– Focuses on feminist perspectives and the confluence of race, class, and gender issues in regard to deviance and crime
Liberal Feminist Approach
Women’s deviance and crime are a rational response to the gender discrimination that women experience in families and the workplace
Radical Feminist Approach
Views the cause of women’s crime as originating in patriarchy (male domination over females)

From this video, arrests and prosecution for crimes such as prostitution reflect our society’s sexual double standard whereby it is acceptable for a man to pay for sex but unacceptable for a woman to accept money for such services

Marxist (Social) Feminist Approach
Based on the assumption that women are exploited by both capitalism and patriarchy

Because many females have relatively low-wage jobs (if any) and few economic resources, crimes such as prostitution and shoplifting become a means to earn money or acquire consumer goods

What does the symbolic interactionist approach say?
According to this approach, deviance is learned in the same way as conformity – through interaction with others
What does Edwin Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory say?
That people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity
What does Ronald Akers’ Differential Reinforcement Theory suggest?
That both deviant behavior and conventional behavior are learned through the same social processes. People need to learn to evaluate their own behavior through interactions with significant others
Rational Choice Theory of Deviance
States that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions
Situational Factors
The place of the crime, suitable targets, and the availability of people to deter the behavior
Personal Factors
What rewards they may gain from their criminal behavior
What is a major strength of the Rational Choice Theory?
Explains why high-risk youths do not constantly engage in delinquent acts
What does Walter Reckless’ Control Theory suggest?
That conformity is often associated with a person’s bods to other people
Inner Containments
Self-control, a sense of responsibility, and resistance to diversions
Outer Containments
Supportive family and friends, reasonable social expectations, and supervision by others
What is Travis Hirschi’s social control theory based on?
The assumption that deviant behavior is minimized when people have strong bonds that bind them to families, schools, peers, churches, and other social institutions
Social Bond Theory
Holds that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken
Labeling Theory
States that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants and they, in turn, come to accept the label placed upon them and begin to set accordingly
According to Howard Becker, moral entrepreneurs
Are often the ones who create the rules about what constitutes deviant or conventional behavior
Primary Deviance
Refers to the initial act of rule breaking
Secondary Deviance
Occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts the new identity and continues the deviant behavior
Tertiary Deviance
Occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as non-deviant

Example: Drug users who believe that using marijuana or other illegal drugs is no more deviant than drinking alcoholic beverages and therefore should not be stigmatized

What does the labeling theory not explain?
What used the original acts that constituted primary deviance, nor does it provide insight into why some people accept deviant labels and others do not
What do postmodern theorists emphasize?
That the study of deviance reveals how the powerful exert control over the powerless by taking away their free will to think and act as they might choose

Examples: Institutions such as prisons, schools, and mental hospitals use knowledge, norms, and values to categorize people into “deviant” subgroups such as slow learners, convicted felons, or criminally insane, and then to control them through specific patterns of discipline

Panoptican
A structure that gives prison officials the possibility of complete observation of criminals at all times
Felony
A serious crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault, for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year’s imprisonment to death
Misdemeanor
A minor crime that is typically punished by less than one year in jail
What is the major source of information on crimes reported in the United States? Who compiles it?
The Uniform Crime Report (UCR), which is compiled by the FBI
Violent Crime
Consists of actions – murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault – involving force or the threat of force against others
Property Crimes
Include burglary (breaking into private property to commit a serious crime), motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft (theft of property worth $50 or more), and arson
Public Order Crimes
Involve an illegal action voluntarily engaged in by the participants, such as prostitution, illegal gambling, the private use of illegal drugs, and illegal pornography
Victimless Crimes
Involve a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults
Occupational (White-Collar) Crime
Compromises illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs
Corporate Crime
Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support

Examples: Anti-trust violations; tax evasion; misrepresentations in advertising; infringements on patents, copyrights, and trademarks; price fixing; and financial fraud

Internet Crime
Consists of FBI-related scams, identity theft, advance fee fraud, nonauction/nondelivery of merchandise, and overpayment fraud
Advance Fee Fraud
Occurs when a perpetrator seeks to convince the victim to pay a fee to receive something of value, such as a car, but then nothing of value is delivered to the victim
Nonauction/Nondelivery Fraud
The purchase does not receive the items that he or she has paid for in an outline auction, or other fraudulent sales offering
Overpayment Fraud
Occurs when an online seller receives instructions to deposit in his or her bank account as a money order made out for a higher amount than what the seller is asking for an item being sold on the Internet, and then the extra amount must be returned to the offender
Organized Crime
A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit

Examples: Drug trafficking, prostitution, loan-sharking, money laundering, and large-scale theft such as truck hijackings

Political Crime
Refers to ilegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it
Terrorism
The calculated, unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective
Criminal Justice System
Refers to the local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals

Examples: Systems includes the police, the courts, the correctional facilities, and the people in myriads of police agencies, courts, prosecutorial agencies, correctional institutions, and probation and parole departments

Discretion
Refers to the use of personal judgment by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice system officials regarding whether and how to proceed in a given situation
Racial Profiling
The use of either or racial background as a means of identifying criminal suspects – remains a highly charged issue
Sworn Officers
Those who have taken an oath and been given the powers to make arrests and use necessary force in accordance with their duties
Community-Oriented Policing
An approach to law enforcement in which officers maintain a presence in the community, walking up and down the streets or riding bicycles, getting to know people, and holding public service meetings at schools, churches, and other neighborhood settings
Structured Sentencing (Determinate Sentencing or Mandatory Sentencing)
Sets the term of imprisonment at a fixed period of time for a specific offense
Plea Bargain
A process in which the prosecution negotiates a reduced sentence for the accused in exchange for a guilty plea
Parens Patriae (Thes tate as parent)
The official purpose of juvenile courts has been to care for, rather than punish, youthful offenders
What do juvenile courts seek to do?
Change or resocialize offenders through treatment or therapy, not to punish them. The offender is not “sentenced”; rather, the case is “adjudicated” or “disposed of”
Who are jails run by? What are they designed for?
Jails are run by local governments or a sheriff’s department. They’re designed to hold people before they make bail, when they’re awaiting trial, or when they’re serving short sentences for committing a misdemeanor
Who are prisons run by? What are they designed for?
Prisons are operated by state governments and the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and are designed to hold individuals convicted of felonies
Punishment
Any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed
What are the four major goals of punishment?
1. Retribution
2. General deterrence
3. Incapacitation
4. Rehabilitation
Retribution
Punishment that a person receives for infringing on the rights of others. The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished

Example: An individual who murders should be punished more severely than one who shoplifts

General Deterrence
Seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear of punishment in the general public

Special deterrence: Inflicts punishment on specific criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes

Incapacitation
Based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or are excited will be unable to commit additional crimes

Selective Incapacitation: Means that offenders who repeat certain kinds of crimes are sentenced to long prison terms

Rehabilitation
Seeks to return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens by providing therapy or vocational or educational training
Restoration
Designed to repair the damage done to the victim and the community by an offender’s criminal act
Restorative Justice Perspective
States that the criminal justice system should promote a peaceful and just society; therefore, the system should focus on peacemaking rather than on punishing offenders
What are included in the field of corrections?
Halfway ouses, probation, work release and education programs, parole supervision, counseling, and community service
Structural Solution
Such as more and better education and jobs, affordable housing, more equality and less discrimination, and socially productive activities – are needed to reduce street crime
What are the seven strategies that Steven E. Barker proposed for reducing crime and delinquency that are more structural in nature?
1. Create decent jobs that pay a living wage
2. Provide economic aid for people who are unemployed or are barely making it
3. End racial segregation in housing
4. Strengthen social integration and social institutions in urban neighborhoods
5. Reduce housing and population density
6. Change male socialization
7. Reduce economic inequality

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