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Social psychology Test 1 Ch 1-4

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Social psychology
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is the scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the rel or imagined presence of other people.
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Social Influence
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The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people havee on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
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WE are often in fluenced merely by the ______ of other people, including strangers who are not interacting with us.
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Presence
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We are governed by the imaginary approval or disapproval of our ____,_____, _______, _____
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parent’s, friends, and teachers, and by how we expect others to react to us.
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_____ has been a major source of insight about human nature.
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philosophy
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_______ questions, meaning that their answers can be derived from experimentation or measurement rather than by personal opinion
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empirical
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the first task of the social psychologist is to make and educated guess, called a
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hypothesis
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the second task is to design ____________
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well- controlled experiments sophisticated enough to tease out the situations that would result in one or another outcome.
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______, the aspects of people’s personalities that make them different from others.
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individual differences
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For the social psychologist, the level of analysis
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individual in the context of a social situation
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The major difference is that sociology, rather than focusing on the individual, looks toward
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society at large. The level of analysis is the group or institution.
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The goal of social psychology is to
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identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptibel to social influence, regardless of social class or culture
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Cross-Cultural reasearch is therefore extremely valuable, because it
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sharpens theories, either by demonstrating their universality or by leading us to discover additional variables whose incorporation helps us makemore-accurate predictions of human behavior.
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social psychologist focus more on the
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psychological makeup f individuals that renders people susceptible to social influence
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social psychology emphasizes the _________ shared by most people around the world that make them susceptible to social influence
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psychological processes
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without important info about a situation, most people will try to explain someone’s behavior in terms of
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the personality of the individual
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the tendency to explain our own and other people’s behavior entirely in terms of personality traits and to underestimate the power of social influence
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fundamental attribution error.
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soial and environmental situations are so powerful that they have dramatic effects on almost everyeone
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domain of the social psychologist
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a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need on ly consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
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behaviorism
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the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
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construal
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a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appars in people’s minds rather than the objective physical attributes of the object
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Gestalt Psychology
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it is often more important to understand how people____, ____, and_____ the social world than it is to understand its _____
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perceive, comprehend, and interpret objective properties
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Genereally considere the founding father of modern experimeental social psychology
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Kurt Lewin
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was the first scientis to fully realize the importance of taking the perspective of the people in a situation
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Kurt Lewin
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Lee Ross call _____ the ocnviciton that all of us share that we percieve things “as they really are”. If other people seee the same things difiiferently, therefore, it must be because they are _____
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Naive realism biased
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Two motives are of primary importance
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the need to feel good about ourselves and ghe need to be accurate
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most people have a strong need to maintain ______ that is to see themselves as ___,____, and _____
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self-esteem good , competent, and decent
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human beings are motivated to maintain a postive picture of themselves, in part by justifying their________, and _______, this leads them to do things that at first glance might seem surprising or paradoxical
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behavior and that under certain specifiable conditions
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you expect that you or antoher person will behave in some way, so you act in ways to make your prediciton come true
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self-fulfilling prophecy
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How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people ____, _____, _____, and _____ to make judgments and decisions
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Social Cognition select, interpret, remember, and use social information
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social psychology can be defined as
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the scientific study of social influence.
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a fundamental principle of social psychology is that many social problems, such as the causes of and reactions to violence, can be
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can be studied scientifically
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whereby people exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome aafter knowing that it occured
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hindsight bias
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he formulated a new approach—-______—- that made specific predicitons about when and how people would change their attitudes.
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Leon Festinger Dissonance theory
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social psychologist, like scientists in other discipline, engage in a
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process of theory refinement:
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a ____, is developed; specific hypotheses derived from that theory are tested; based on the results obtained, the ____ is revised and new hpotheses are formulated.
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Theory
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the theory that says if there is more than one witness than the people are more likely to say someone else would go help as in if they were alone then they would be more likely to help
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diffusion of responsibility
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the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
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observational method
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the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
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ethnography
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____ is the chief method of cultural anthropology, the study of human cultures and societies.
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enthnography
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the key to ____ is to avoid imposing one’s preconceived notions on the group and to try to understand the point of view of the people being studied.
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ethnography
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which is the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data.
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interjudge reliability
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the researcher can also examine the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture, a technique known as and
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archival analysis
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_______ research in the form of archival analysis, can tell us a great deal about society’s values and beliefs.
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observational research
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a goal of social science is to understand relationships between _____ and to be able to predict when different kinds of _____ behaviorr occur.
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variables
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two variables are systematically measured, and the relationship between them- how much you can predict one from the other is assessed
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correlational method
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a statistic that asesses how well you can predict one variable from another
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correlation coefficient
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two variables to be completely unrelated, so that a researcher cannot
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predict one variable from the other
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The _____ method is often used in _____, research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior
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correlational method surveys
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SURVEY advantages
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allows researches to judge the relationship between variables that are difficult to observe another is the capability of sampling representative segments of the population
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a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the popultion an equal chance of being selected for the sample
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random selection
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the major shortcoming of the correlational method is that it tells us only that ___ variables are related, whereas the goal of the social psychologist is to identify the causes of ____
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TWO social behavior
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correlation does not prove
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causation
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the method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions an ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable(the one thought to have a causal effect on people’s respones)
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experimental method (method of choice)
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the variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
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independent variable
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the variable a researcher measures to see if it is influence by the IP. THE RESEARCHER HPOTHESIZES THAT THE DV will depend on the level of the IV.
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dependent variable
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keeping everything but the independent variable the same in an experiment is referred to as
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internal validity
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all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
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random assignment to condition
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a number, calculated with statistical techniques, that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the IV.
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probability level (p-value)
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is considered significant (trustworthy) if the probability level is less than_____ in ___ that the results might be due to chance factors rather than the IV studied
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5 in 100
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the ___ tells us how confident we can be that the difference was due to chance rather than the IV
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P-VALUE
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making sure that the IV, and only the IV, influences the DV
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INTERNAL VALIDITY
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the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to toher situations and to other people
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external validity
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the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiement are similar to psychological proceses that occur in everyday life
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psychological reaction
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a disguiesed version of the study’s true purpose.
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cover story
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researchers study behavior outside the lab, in its natural setting (best way)
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field experiments
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Repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings ( are the ultimate test of an experiment’s external validity
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Rplications
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the trade off between internal and external has been refeered to as the
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basic dilemma of the social psychologist
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a statistical techinque that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
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Meta-analysis
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studies designed to find the best answer to the quesiton of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
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basic Research
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Studies deigned to solve a particular social problem
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Applied Research
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Who coined the motto for the field “there is nothig so procatical as a good theory”
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Kurt Lewing
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to study the effects of culture on social psychological process, social psychologist conduct
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cross- cultural research
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was developed by Charles Darwin (1859) to explain the ways in which animals adat to their environments
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Evolutionary theory
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the process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations because organisms with thos traits are more likely to produce off spring
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Natural Selection
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Scocial behaavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
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Evolutionary psychology
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Social psychologists have become interested in the connection between
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biological processes and social behavior
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agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been wxplained in advance
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informed consent
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misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
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deception
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A group made up of a least one scientist, one non scientist, and one member not affiliated with the institution that reviews all psychological research that instituion and decides wherther it meets ethical guidleines; all research must be approved by the IRB before it is conducted
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Institutional Review Board IRB
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EXPLAINING TO PARTICIPANTS, AT THE END OF EXPERIMENT, THE TRUE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND EXACTLY WHAT TRANSPIRED
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debriefing
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We often make decisions : without thinking.” such as jamming on the brakes of our car when we see a child step into the road
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automatic thinking
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hours spent deliberating over important decsions in your life
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controlled thinking
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How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
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Social Cognition
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Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
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automatic thinking
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mental strucutures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjets and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember.
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Schemas
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The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forfront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
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accessibility
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the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
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priming
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The case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people’s originial expectations, making the expectations come true
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self-fulfilling prophecy
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Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
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Judgmental Heuristics
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A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring somehting to mind
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avalability heuristic
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a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
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representativeness heuristic
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information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
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base rate information
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a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surround context; this type of thinking is common in Western clultures
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analytic thinking style
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a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particualarly the ways in which objects relate to each other; this type of thinking is common in East Asian cultures
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holistic thinking style
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thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
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controlled thinking
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mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
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counterfactual thinking
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the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
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overconfidence Barrier
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the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
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social perception
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the way in which people ocmmunicate, intentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze
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nonverbal communication
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to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
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encode
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to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people expres, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
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decode
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a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
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affect blend
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culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
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display rules
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nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations-such as the ok sign
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emblems
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A type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for ex, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well
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implicit personaility theory
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a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behavior
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attributiion theory
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the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
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internal attribution
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the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
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external attribution
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A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person’s behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs
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`covariation Model
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info about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
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consensus info
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info about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
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distinctiveness info
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info about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
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consistency information
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the tendncy to overestimate the extent to which people’s behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
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fundamental attribution Error
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the seeming importance of info that is the focus of people’s attention
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perceptual salience
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analyzing another person’s behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
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two-step process of attribution
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explanations for one’s successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one’s failures that blame external, situational factors.
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self-serving attributions
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explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
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defensive attributions
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the tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are
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bias blind spot
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a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people.
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belief in a just World