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Social Psychology Midterm Exam

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Social Influence
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the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
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Social Psychology
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the scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the imagined presence of other people
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Construal
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the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
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Individual Differences
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the aspects of people’s personalities that make them different from others
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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the tendency to explain our own and other people’s behavior entirely in terms of personality traits, therefore eliminating the power of social influence
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Behaviorism
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a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment; how positive and negative event in the environment are associated with specific behaviors
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Gestalt Psychology
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a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s minds, rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
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Self-Esteem
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people’s evaluations of their own self-worth; the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
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Social Cognition
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how people thin about themselves and the social world; how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
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Hindsight Bias
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tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing it occurred
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Observational Method
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technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
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Ethnography
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method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
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Interjudge Reliability
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level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data
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Archival Analysis
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form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated archives of a culture
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Correlational Method
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technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationships between them is assessed
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Correlation Coefficient
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a statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another
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Surveys
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research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior
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Random Selection
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a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
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Experimental Method
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method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that they’re identical except for the independent variable
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Independent Variable
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variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
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Dependent Variable
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variable a researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will depend on the level of the independent variable
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Random Assignment to Condition
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process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
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Internal Validity
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ensuring that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable
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External Validity
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extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
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Psychological Realism
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extent to which the psychological processes triggered in a experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in every life
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Cover Story
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description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose, used to maintain psychological realism
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Field Experiments
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experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
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Replications
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repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings
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Meta-Analysis
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statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
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Basic Research
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studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
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Applied Research
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studies designed to solve a particular social problem
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Cross-Cultural Research
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research conducted with members of different cultures to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they’re specific to the culture in which people were raised
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Natural Selection
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process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations
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Evolutionary Psychology
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attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time from natural selection
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Informed Consent
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agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which was explained in advance
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Deception
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misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or events that will actually transpire
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Institutional Review Board (IRB)
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group made up of at least one scientist, one nonscientist, and one member not affiliated with the institution that reviews all psychological research at that institution and decides if it meets ethical guidelines
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Debriefing
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explaining to participants the true purpose/what transpired in the study at the end of an experiment
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Social Cognition (2)
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how people think about themselves and the social world; how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
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Automatic Thinking
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nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless thought
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Schemas
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mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
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Accessibility
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extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
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Priming
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process by which recent experiences increases the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
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the case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which expectations, making the expectations come true
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Judgmental Heuristics
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mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
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Available Heuristic
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mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
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Representativeness Heuristic
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a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
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Base Rate Information
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information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
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Analytic Thinking Style
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a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context
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Holistic Thinking Style
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a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other
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Controlled Thinking
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mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
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Counterfactual Thinking
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mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
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Thought Suppression
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the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
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Overconfidence Barrier
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people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
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Social Perception
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study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
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Nonverbal Communication
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the way in which people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words
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Encode
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to express or emit nonverbal behavior
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Decode
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to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express
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Affect Blend
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a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
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Display Rules
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culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
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Emblems
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nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture that usually have direct verbal translations
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Implicit Personality Theory
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a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together
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Attribution Theory
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a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and others’ behavior
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Internal Attribution
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the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in
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Covariation Model
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theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person’s behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior exists
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Consensus Information
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information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
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Distinctiveness Information
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information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
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Consistency Information
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information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
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Correspondance Bias
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the tendency to infer that people’s behavior corresponds to their disposition
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Perceptual Salience
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the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people’s attention
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Two-Step Process of Attribution
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analyzing another person’s behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
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Actor/Observer Difference
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the tendency to see other people’s behavior as disposition ally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one’s own behavior
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Self-Serving Attributions
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explanations for one’s successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one’s failures that blame external, situational factors
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Defensive Attributions
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explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
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Belief in a Just World
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a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and good things to good people
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Self Concept
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content of the self/our knowledge about who we are
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Self Awareness
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the act of thinking about ourselves
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Independent View of the Self
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a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
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Interdependent View of the Self
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a way of defining oneself in therms of one’s relationships to other people and recognizing that one’s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
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Introspection
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process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
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Self-Awareness Theory
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idea that people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
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Causal Theories
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theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors
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Reasons-Generated Attitude Change
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attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes
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Self-Perception Theory
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theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain and ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
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Intrinsic Motivation
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desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it
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Extrinsic Motivation
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desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures
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Overjustification Effect
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tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by the compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
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Task-Contingent Rewards
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rewards given for performing a task, regardless of how well it’s done
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Performance-Contingent Rewards
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rewards based on how well we perform a task
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Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
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idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
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Misattribution
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process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
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Appraisal Theories of Emotion
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theories holding that emotions result from people’s interpretations and explanations of events even in the absence of physiological arousal
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Fixed Mindset
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idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change
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Growth Mindset
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idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
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Social Comparison Theory
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idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
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Downward Social Comparison
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comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
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Upward Social Comparison
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comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
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Social Tuning
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process by which people adopt another person’s attitudes
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Impression Management
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attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
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Ingratiation
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process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
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Self-Handicapping
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strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
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Cognitive Dissonance
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drive or feeling of discomfort originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one’s customary, typically positive self conception
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Impact Bias
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tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events
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Postdecision Dissonance
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dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternatives
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Lowballing
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a strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low price, subsequently claim it was an error, and then raise the price. the customer will generally agree to make the purchase at the inflated price
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Justification of Effort
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tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
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External Justification
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reason or explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual
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Internal Justification
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reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself
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Counterattitudinal Advocacy
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stating an opinion or attitude that counters one’s private belief or attitude
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Hypocrisy Induction
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arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior
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Insufficient Punishment
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dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object
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Self-Persuasion
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long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification
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Attitudes
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evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
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Cognitively Based Attitude
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based primarily on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude subject
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Affectively Based Attitude
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based more on people’s feelings and values tan on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
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Classical Conditioning
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phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that doesn’t, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
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Operant Conditioning
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phenomenon whereby behaviors wer freely choose to perform become more or less frequent depending on whether they’re followed by a reward or punishment
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Behaviorally Based Attitude
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based on observations of how one behaves towards an attitude object
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Explicit Attitudes
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attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily repeat
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Implicit Attitudes
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attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times, unconscious
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Persuasive Communication
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communication advocating a particular side of an issue
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Yale Attitude Change Approach
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study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messaging, focusing on “who said what to whom” – the source or nature of the communication and the nature of the audience
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Elaboration Likelihood Modal
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explains two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally and peripherally
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Central Route to Persuasion
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case whereby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, as occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
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Peripheral Route to Persuasion
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case whereby people don’t elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues
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Need for Cognition
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personality variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
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Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion
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explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: 1. systematically processing the merits of the arguments, 2. using heuristics
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Attitude Inoculation
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making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
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Reactance Theory
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idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior
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Attitude Accessibility
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strength of the association between an attitude object and a person’s evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about that object
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Theory of Planned Behavior
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idea that the press predictors of a person’s planned, deliberate behaviors are the person’s attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
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Subliminal Messages
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words/pictures that aren’t consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
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Group
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three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
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Social Roles
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shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
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Social Facilitation
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the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they’re in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
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Social Loafing
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the tendency for people to relax when they’re in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated, such that they do worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks
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Deindividuation
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the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified
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Process Loss
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any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
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Transactive Memory
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the combined memory of two people that’s more efficient than the memory of either individual
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Groupthink
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kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
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Group Polarization
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tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
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Great Person Theory
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idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
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Transactional Leaders
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leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
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Transformational Leaders
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leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
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Contingency Theory of Leadership
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idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
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Task-Oriented Leader
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leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers’ feelings and relationships
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Relationship-Oriented Leader
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leader who is concerned primarily with workers’ feelings and relationships
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Social Dilemma
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conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
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Tit-for-Tat Strategy
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a means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did on the previous trial
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Public Goods Dilemma
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social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
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Commons Dilemma
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social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation, but will disappear if overused
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Negotiation
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form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
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Integrative Solution
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solution to conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests