Please enter something

Social Psychology Midterm Chapter 1-7

question

Social Cognition
answer

how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions a movement in social psychology that began in the 1970s that focused on thoughts about people and about social relationships
question

Biological influences
answer

focus on learning about what happens in the brain, nervous system, and other aspects of the body.
question

Self-Parts of self
answer

The psychology of self is the study of either the cognitive, conative or affective representation of one’s identity or the subject of experience. The earliest formulation of the self in modern psychology derived from the distinction between the self as I, the subjective knower, and the self as Me, the object that is known.[1] Current views of the self in psychology position the self as playing an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and social identity.[2] It may be the case that we can now usefully attempt to ground experience of self in a neural process with cognitive consequences, which will give us insight into the elements of which the complex multiply situated selves of modern identity are composed. The self has many facets that help make up integral parts of it, such as self-awareness, self-esteem, self-knowledge, and self-perception. All parts of the self enable people to alter, change, add, and modify aspects of themselves in order to gain social acceptance in society. “Probably the best account of the origins of selfhood is that the self comes into being at the interface between the inner biological processes of the human body and the sociocultural network to which the person belongs.”[3]
question

Max Ringelman
answer

founder of social psychology. measured others effects on you. found that as group size increased, individual effort decreased. performed this experiment
question

What is Social Psychology
answer

Scientific study on how individuals interact with the outside world. Study how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected/influenced by others.
question

What is Psychology
answer

the study of human behavior
question

What do social psychologists do?
answer

Social psychology is concerned with the effect of other people on human beings’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Social psychology focuses especially on the power of situations study the effects of personal and situational influences on the ABC triad Affect Behavior Cognition
question

Psychology and experimental philosophy
answer

connection applying scientific method to philosophical ideas
question

hypothesis
answer

educated guess formulated testable as a tentative solution to the problem in the scientific method. the second step of scientific method. an idea about the possible nature of reality; a prediction tested in an experiment
question

Common sense
answer

common sense can be mistaken.
question

Little Brenda
answer

was not told about the botched circumcision of the gender switch. She grew up wearing long hair and dresses and being introduced to the female sex role. The girl never fit in and when she found out her real identity she transformed but happiness proved elusive when he switched to a man and he killed himself. This is evidence that sex roles are entirely due to socialization and Brenda was described as a normal health girl but problems emerged later suggested that the differences between male and female are partly innate.
question

Nature vs. Nurture
answer

Nature is the physical world around us, including its laws and processes vs. culture as an information based system in which many people work together to help satisfy their biological and social needs. culture is what a group of people have in common including shared beliefs, meanings and doing things. Nature has prepared humans to use ideas.Nature makes us selfish, culture requires us to resists selfish impulses. Nature is the physical world around us.
question

Culture
answer

an information-based system that includes shared ideas and common ways of doing things
question

Duplex mind
answer

the idea that the mind has two processing systems (deliberate and automatic) deliberate: the part of the mind that performs complex operations. Guided by intention, “figure it out”, reasoning. automatic: the part of the mind outside of consciousness that performs simple operations. “Go with your gut feeling”, effortless, fast.
question

Automatic System
answer

the part of the mind outside of consciousness that performs simple operations
question

Deliberate System
answer

the part of the mind that performs complex operations
question

Self enhancement motive
answer

the desire to learn favorable or flattering things about the self
question

Consistency motive
answer

a desire to get feedback that confirms what the person already believes about himself or herself
question

Appraisal motive
answer

the simple desire to learn the truth about oneself, whatever it is.
question

Self-presentation
answer

any behavior that seeks to convey some image of self or some information about the self to other people. any behavior that is intended (even unconsciously) to make an impression on others is included.(I forgive, but i don’t forget) how you dress, what car you drive.
question

Intrinsic rewards
answer

inner state rewards that do not involve money and for the sake of rewarding the self without extrinsic reward so to perform an impression on an audience.
question

Intrinsic motivation
answer

wanting to perform an activity for its own sake. Few people have an intrinsic desire to collect garbage, pay taxes, or go to court, but many people people do these things because of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is found in most animal species.
question

Social comparison
answer

examining the difference between oneself and another person
question

Interdependent self
answer

(public self) the image of the self that is conveyed to others
question

The looking-glass self
answer

the idea that people learn about themselves by imagining how they appear to others
question

Self-regulation
answer

The process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts, feelings, & behavior w/goal of producing a desired outcome -process is purposive -self-corrective judgments taking place -corrective adjustments originate from w/in self
question

Self reference effect
answer

the finding that information bearing on the self is processed more
question

Self esteem
answer

how favorably someone evaluates himself or herself
question

Gender gap and self esteem
answer

Women’s self esteem is only slightly below that of men’s . Women and girls tend to be critical of their bodies, whereas boys and men think their bodies are just fine, and this discrepancy probably accounts for most if not all of the gender differences in self-esteem.
question

Self concepts
answer

Your body is continuous, but it changes too, first growing taller and stronger, then often growing fatter and less flexible, and finally developing wrinkles, shrinking, and acquiring other signs of old age. People change so much that they could revise their self-concept. You can simply decide to change how you think about yourself, and your actions will come around to reflect the new you. Or you can decide to change your behavior, and a change in self-concept will follow. -Revising self-knowledge -changing the looking glass -promoting change -new self, new story self knowledge, interpersonal self or public self
question

Risk aversion
answer

in decision making, the greater weight given to possible losses than possible gains
question

Temporal discounting
answer

in decision making, the greater weight given to the present over the future finding that the present is more important than the future in decision making. The further in the future something lies, the less influence it has on the decision.
question

Status quo bias
answer

the preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
question

Certainty effect
answer

in decision making, the greater weight given to definite outcomes than to probabilities. Tendency to place too much emphasis on definite outcomes
question

Visualization
answer

is a cognitive tool accessing imagination to realize all aspects of an object, action or outcome. This may include recreating a mental sensory experience of sound, sight, smell, taste, and touch
question

Omission bias
answer

the tendency to take whatever course of action does not require you to do anything (also called the default option)
question

Temporal gain
answer

gain now, lose later Studies on temporal discounting typically involve choosing between two outcomes of the same sign, i.e., positive or negative. For example, participants often are given a choice between a smaller, sooner gain and a larger, but later gain, or (less commonly) the options may be a sooner, larger loss and a later, but smaller loss.
question

Reactance
answer

an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom
question

Panic button effect
answer

reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation, even if one doesn’t exercise it
question

Hierarchy of goals
answer

People usually have this with short-term or proximal goals that operate as stepping-stones toward long term or distal goals. The person who has hierarchy of goals, with many steps leading up to the ultimate distal goal, is far more likely to be successful.
question

Self regulation
answer

the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
question

Self defeating behaviors
answer

any action by which people bring failure, suffering, or misfortune on themselves
question

Fear of success
answer

theory death drive that impels to pursue own downfall and death. Young women believed that if they became too successful in their world they would end up lonely, rejected, and unable to find romantic partners. Because of this fear of success, many women sabotage their careers. theory proposed by Matina Horner
question

Cognitive miser
answer

term used to describe people’s reactance to do much extra thinking. Tries to avoid thinking too hard or too much.
question

Non conscious/ conscious processing
answer

Some thinking proceeds by automatic means, whereas other thinking relies on conscious control. At least 5 elements distinguish automatic from deliberate processes: awareness intention control effort efficiency
question

Stroop test
answer

a standard measures of effortful control over responses, requiring participants to identify the color of a word (which may name a different color) Name color of rectangle as quickly as can examples also include color and word of color that is different.
question

Schemas
answer

knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept, its attributes, and its relationships to other concepts mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes of subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember 3 schemas can become accessible: • Past experience • Related to a current goal • Recent experience
question

Scripts
answer

knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations; we all have a script for what typically happens at a wedding
question

Heuristics
answer

mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events. Representativeness: tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case. (coin toss) Availability: tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind. (overestimating) Simulation: tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which you can imagine it. (When people imagine what might have been, emotional reactions to events are intensified) Anchoring and adjustment: tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by using a starting point and than making adjustments up or down.
question

Priming
answer

activating an idea in someone’s mind so that related ideas are more accessible the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept. Such as the name of someone you hated in middle school, then you meet someone with that name and you automatically hate that person
question

Attribution theory
answer

the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition; studied by Fritz Heider
question

Self serving bias
answer

The tendency to attribute successes/positive events to one’s own internal factors/character while attributing failures/negative events to external factors/environment in order to protect one’s self-esteem.
question

Mood
answer

feeling state that is not clearly linked to some event. You may not know why you are in a good or bad mood, but you do know that you feel happy or sad.
question

Emotion
answer

a conscious evaluative reaction that is clearly linked to some event. a reaction to something and the person who has the emotion knows it.
question

Affect
answer

the automatic response that something is good (Positive affect) or bad (negative affect)
question

Response
answer

Positive affect encompasses all good emotions. Negative affect encompasses all bad emotions.
question

Affective reactions
answer

can occur without consciousness. You can have a quick positive or negative feeling about something as simple as a word without being fully conscious of it.
question

Facial feedback
answer

the idea that feedback from the face muscles evokes or magnifies emotions
question

Basic arousal states
answer

Schachter-Singer theory allows for arousal states to be disabled or relabeled. Arousal may arise for one reason but get another label, thereby producing a different reaction. The mind then searches for a label to make sense of the emotional state. Arousal serves to narrow and focus attention. Some arousal is better than none, but too much arousal can hurt performance.
question

Affect as information
answer

the idea that people judge something as good or bad by asking themselves “How do i feel about it?” Research has shown that mood effects are eliminated when people misattribute their mood to an irrelevant source, such as the weather.
question

Affect forecasting
answer

the ability to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events
question

Dual attitude theory
answer

different evaluations of the same attitude object held by the same person (perhaps one deliberate, the other automatic) automatic: very fast evaluative, “gut level” responses that people don’t think a great deal about. deliberate: reflective responses that people think more carefully about.
question

Attitudes
answer

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. helpful in making choices. Possessing one increases the ease, speed, and quality of decision making
question

Cognitive coping
answer

the idea that beliefs play a central role in helping people cope with and recover from misfortunes
question

Social media and career searches/ applicants
answer

Students place information on their Facebook page that employers might find inappropriate. Almost half of prospective employers use social networks sites to check out job applicants, and they use Facebook more than LinkedIn. About 35% of applicants are rejected because of information employers find posted on their Facebook page.
question

Classical conditioning
answer

a type of learning in which, through repeated pairings, a neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response Meat powder (unconditioned stimulus) makes the dog’s mouth water (unconditioned response). The first time a researcher rings a bell (neutral stimulus), the dog’s mouth does not water. However, if the researcher rings the bell every time the dog gets meat powder, the dog begins to respect that every time it hears the bell it will be fed, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus. Eventually the sound of the bell alone will make the dog’s mouth water (conditioned response), even with no food around.
question

Instrumental learning
answer

(operant conditioning) participants are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished. Parents, teachers, and other adults often use operant conditioning by praising children for expressing what they consider to be socially desirable attitudes.
question

Associative learning
answer

(social learning, observational learning imitation, vicarious learning) People learn how to behave by observing and imitating others. The idea is that people do not imitate the specific social behaviors they see, but make cognitive inferences based on their observations, and these inferences lead to generalizations in behavior.
question

Operant conditioning
answer

Learning of the association between responses (behaviour) and its consequences. -The responses are voluntary -The response are emitted type of learning for which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed again in the future; a response that has a desirable consequence will tend to be repeated and a response that has an undesirable consequence will tend not to be repeated
question

Cognitive dissonance
answer

The feeling when people find themselves doing things that contradict their beliefs
question

A-B problem
answer

the problem of inconsistency between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B)