Social Psychology Exam #3 Review Questions

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All of the following are true about attitudes, except
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a. they are evaluations of people, objects, and ideas b. they are related to our temperament and personality c. they rarely change over time d. they can be changed with persuasive communications e. under the right conditions, they predict people’s behavior (answer: c)
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Paige wants to buy a puppy. She does some research and decides to buy an English springer spaniel rather than a great dane because they are smaller, more active, and good with children. What type of attitude influenced her decision?
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a. affectively based attitude b. behaviorally based attitude c. explicitly based attitude d. cognitively based attitude (answer: d)
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People will be most likely to change their attitudes about smoking if an antismoking advertisement:
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a. uses extremely graphic pictures of how smoke can harm the body, and warns of the risks of smoking b. gives people subliminal messages about the risks of smoking as well as recommendations of how to quit c. uses graphic pictures of the damages of smoking on the body and then provides specific recommendations on how to quit smoking d. uses success stories of how people quit smoking. (answer: c)
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Emilia would be most likely to pay attention to facts about the danger of AIDS during a school assembly and remember the facts for a long time if
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a. the speaker emphasized statistical information about AIDS throughout the world b. The speaker emphasized how the disease has spread in the community, and there isn’t anything distracting Emilia from listening c. The speaker emphasized how the disease has spread in her community and there isn’t anything distracting Emilia from listening. d. The speaker is a nationally known expert on AIDS. (answer: b)
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You are trying to sell a new electronic toothbrush at the airport to busy, distracted travelers. Which of the following is least likely to be successful at getting people to buy a toothbrush?
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a. Make up a flier that gives convincing reasons why the toothbrush is good b. Make a large sign that says \”9 out of 10 dentists recommend this toothbrush!\” c. Put up a large banner featuring a picture of your friend who looks like Brad Pitt posing with the toothbrush. d. Stop people and say \”do you know that this is the toothbrush that is used the most by hollywood celebrities?\” (answer: a)
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According to reactance theory, what of the following public service messages would be least likely to get people to wear seatbelts?
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a. \”Please wear your seatbelt every time you drive.\” b. \”Wear your seatbelt to save lives.\” c. \”It’s the law- you must wear your seatbelt.\” d. \”Buckle up your children- you might save their life.\” (answer: c)
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Under which of the following conditions would people be most likely to vote for a political candidate? They
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a. like the candidate’s policies but have negative feelings towards him/her b. know little about the candidate’s policies but have positive feelings toward him/her. c. see subliminal ads supporting the candidate on national TV d. see TV ads supporting the candidate while they are distracted by their children. (answer: b)
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All of the following are examples of ways to resist persuasion except:
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a. making people immune to change of opinions by initially exposing them to small doses of arguments against their position b. warning people about advertising techniques such as product placement c. forbidding people to buy a product d. role-playing using milder versions of real-life social pressures (answer: c)
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On a survey, Milo reports that he agrees with wearing a seatbelt. According to the theory of planned behavior, what else will predict whether Milo will wear a seatbelt on a given day?
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a. He generally agrees that safe driving is important b. His best friend, Trevor, was in the car and he also wore a seatbelt. c. His attitude toward seatbelts was not very accessible. d. Milo believes that it is hard for him to remember to wear his seatbelt. (answer: b)
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Suppose that while you are watching a film at a movie theater, the words \”drink coke\” are flashed on the screen at speeds too quick for you to see consciously. According to research on subliminal perception, which of the following is true?
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a. You will get up and buy a coke, but only if you are thirsty. b. You will get up and buy a coke, but only if you prefer coke to pepsi c. You will be less likely to get up and buy a coke d. You will be no more likely to buy a coke than if the subliminal messages were not flashed. (answer: d)
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Why are groups homogenous (alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions?)
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a. People who are already similar to each other will join b. Evolutionary pressures caused people with similar genes to join groups. c. Groups encourage similarity in their members. d. a and c e. a, b, and c. (answer: d)
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Group cohesiveness is best defined as:
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a. shared expectations in a group about how people are supposed to behave b. qualities that bind members together and promote liking between members. c. expectations about the roles and behaviors of men and women d. the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks in the presence of others. (answer: b)
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You are trying to decide whether to take a test in a lecture hall where you will be surrounded by lots of other people, or in a room by yourself. Assuming you have studied for the test and know the material, you should take the test in the ____ because it will result in ______.
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a. hallway; social loafing b. hallway; social facilitation c. classroom; social loafing d. hallway; deindividuation e. classroom; social facilitation (answer: e)
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The tendency to engage in social loafing is stronger in ___ than ___; it is also stronger in ___ han __.
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a. men, women; asian cultures, western cultures b. women, men; asian cultures, western cultures c. men, women; western cultures, asian cultures d. women, men; western cultures, asian cultures (answer: c)
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On his way back from class, Matt encounters an angry mob ready to storm the dining hall to demand better food. Matt likes the food as it is and wants to stop the mob. What would be the most effective solution?
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a. Increasing group cohesiveness by inviting the entire mob to his house for tea b. Passing out blue shirts for everyone to wear c. Reducing process loss in the group by making sure that its most expert membres have the most influence. d. Finding a friend in the group, calling out her name, and talking to her loudly about an upcoming test. (answer: d)
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Four psychology students working on a group project together are trying to figure out how they should avoid groupthink when making decisions about which information to include in their project. Which of these ideas would be the least helpful?
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a. Bonding by going to see a movie together before starting the project. b. Assigning each group member to be responsible for a different chapter in their textbook so they cover all the details. c. Having a student not in their group review the project d. Designating a leader to oversee the project, but the leader is nondirective and encourages people to give honest feedback. (answer: a)
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Bill and Pam, a married couple, are buying a house and have narrowed their choice down to two options. Bill remembers that one house had a beautiful kitchen; Pam remembers there were two roaches in the broom closet. By sharing this information with each other, Pam and Bill are using ___ to avoid ___.
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a. mindguards; groupthink b. social roles; deindividuation c. transactive memory; process loss d. subgroups; group polarization (answer: c)
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Which of the following is least likely to lead to process loss in a group?
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a. A group leader has high charisma but very little expertise b. The group members have never met before c. Group members do not share info that others lack d. Some members in the group do not listen to each other e. The most competent member doesn’t feel to speak up (answer: b)
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Which of the following is an example of a commons dilemma?
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a. Each fisherman is better off fishing as much as he can, but if they all do that, the fish will be depleted and all fisherman will suffer. b. People may leave a concert before the clapping starts and secure a fast exit from the concert hall, but if everybody does that, it won’t be any faster to get out of the hall. c. Individuals are better off not paying taxes because even if they don’t pay taxes, they will still be able to benefit from parks and highways that were paid for with taxes collected from others. d. When the check is going to be shared at dinner, each individual in the group is better off ordering a more expensive meal, but if everybody does that, everybody will end up paying more. (answer: a)
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When is communication most effective for resolving conflict?
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a. When people communicate through electronic means (ex. over email) b. When it is required c. When the stakes are high for people on both sides of a conflict. d. When a mediator is used (answer: d)
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All of the following are examples of informational social influence except:
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a. You are running a race, but because you are unsure of the route, you wait to check which of two roads the other runners follow. b. You’ve just started work at a new job, and a fire alarm goes off; you watch your coworkers to see what to do. c. When you get to college you change the way you dress so that you can \”fit\” in better, that is, so that people will like you more. d. You ask your advisor which classes you should take next semester e. Mass Psychogenic Illness (answer: c)
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Which of the following is most true according to the social impact theory?
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a. People conform more to others who are physically close than to others who are physically distant. b. People conform more if the others are important to them c. People conform more to three or more people than one or two people d. All of the above are true according to the social impact theory e. Only a and b are true according to the social impact theory (answer: d)
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In Asch’s line studies, participants who were alone when asked to report the length of the lines gave the correct answer 98% of the time. When they were with the confederates, however, (ie. all of whom gave the wrong answer on some trials,) 76% of participants gave the wrong answer at least once. This suggests that Asch’s studies are an illustration of:
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a. public compliance w/ private acceptance b. the fundamental attribution error c. public compliance w/o private acceptance d. informational influence e. private compliance (answer: c)
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Which of the following situations demonstrates mass psychogenic illness?
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a. You share the happiness a close friend experiences when she learns that she’s won the state lottery b. During the past week complaints of dizziness and fainting spells spread throughout the dorm though no physical cause can be identified c. After looking through a medical dictionary you fear you have three separate illnesses d. Panic spreads throughout a crowd when someone yells \”killer bees!\” (answer: b)
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Whereas ___ may be the mechanism by which women learn what kind of body type is considered attractive, ___ explains their attempts to obtain such as shape through dieting and other means.
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a. contagion influence, minority influence b. minority influence, contagion influence c. informational social influence, normative social influence d. normative social influence, informational social influence (answer: c)
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Which of the following is most true about informational social influence?
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a. When deciding whether to conform, people should ask themselves whether the other people know more about what is going on than they do. b. People should always try to resist it c. People are most likely to conform when other people have the same level of expertise as they do. d. Often, people publicly conform but do not privately accept this kind of influence (answer: a)
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Brandon knows that society considers underage drinking to be wrong; he also knows, however, that on a saturday night at his university, many of his friends will engage in this behavior. His belief that most of the public would disapprove of underage drinking is ___, while his perception that many teenagers drink under certain circumstances is ___.
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a. an injunctive norm; a descriptive norm b. a descriptive norm; an injunctive norm c. a descriptive norm; conformity d. an injunctive norm; conformity (answer: a)
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Tom is a new student at his university. During the first week of classes, he notices a fellow student from one of his classes getting on a bus. Tom decides to follow the student and discovers that this bus takes him right to the building where his class meets. This best illustrates what kind of conformity?
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a. Obedience to authority b. Informational social influence c. Public compliance d. Normative social influence e. Mindless conformity (answer: b)
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Which of the following best describes an example of normative social influence?
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a. Sarah is studying with a group of friends. When comparing answers on the practice test, she discovers they all had answered the question differently than she had. Instead of speaking up and telling them she thinks the answer is something else, she agrees with their answer, because she figures they must be right. b. Sarah is supposed to bring a bottle of wine to a dinner party she is attending. She doesn’t drink wine herself, but figures she can just ask the store clerk for advice on what to buy. c. Sarah is out to lunch with her boss and coworkers. Her boss tells a joke that makes fun of a certain ethnic group and everyone laughs. Sarah doesn’t think the joke is funny but laughs anyway. d. Sarah is flying on an airplane for the first time. She is worried when she hears the engine make a strange noise, but feels better after she looks at the flight attendants and sees they are not alarmed. (answer: d)
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Which of the following had the least influence on participants willingness to keep giving shocks in the milgram study?
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a. Normative social influence b. activation of the \”obey authority\” norm\” c. self-justification d. Informational social influence e. participants aggression (answer: e)

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