Cialdini et al (1976): Those who failed were more likely to share team’s victory by sayings like “we won”
Independent Variable: Full length mirror behind bowl or no mirror.
Dependent Variable: How much candy the child took.
Results: 34% broke the rule when no mirror vs 12% broke the rule when there was a mirror.
Cover Story for experiment “Drugs and intellectual performance”
Independent Variable: Solvable and insolvable problems on “aptitude tests”.
Dependent Variable: Choice of drug before next round – Drug A: Helps intellect – Drug B: inhibits intellect.
Results: Drug A Drug B
Solvable Prob 87% 13%
Insolvable Prob 30% 70%
2) Instrumental function: Maximize rewards and minimize punishments
3) Identity expressive function: attitudes facilitate expression of central values or beliefs (See Flemming & Petty,2000)
Independent (individualistic) cultures: Identity is personal, defined by individual traits and goals; distinctiveness emphasized “What Matters is Me”. Disapproves of conformity.
Interdependent (collectivist) cultures: Identity is social; defined by connections with others; fitting in emphasized “What Matters is We” Disapproves of egotism.
Independent Variable: described as “men’s favorite snack food” or “women’s favorite snack food”
Dependent Variable: Liking for product
Result: For people low in gender-group identification, description made no difference. For people high in gender-group identification, liking was higher when product described as favored by own gender group.
Evaluate beliefs that others want you to engage in that behavior (plus the strength of your motivation to comply with those people’s wishes)->subjective norm concerning the behavior
Attitude + subjective norm -> behavioral intention