Social Psychology | Chapter 3 (Social Beliefs and Judgments)

question

priming
answer

activating particular associations in memory
question

embodied cognition
answer

the mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments
question

belief perseverance
answer

persistence of one’s initial conceptions, such as when the basis for one’s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives
question

misinformation effect
answer

incorporating \”misinformation\” into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
question

controlled processing
answer

\”explicit\” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
question

automatic processing
answer

\”implict\” thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness; roughly corresponds to \”intuition\”
question

overconfidence phenomenon
answer

the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs
question

confirmation bias
answer

a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
question

heuristic
answer

a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments
question

representativeness heuristic
answer

the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member
question

availability heuristic
answer

a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory; if instances of something come readily to mind we presume it to be commonplace
question

counterfactual thinking
answer

imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn’t
question

illusory correlation
answer

perception of a relationship where none exists or perception of a stronger relationship that actually exists
question

illusion of control
answer

perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are
question

regression toward the average
answer

the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return towards one’s average
question

misattribution
answer

mistakenly attributing behavior to the wrong source
question

attribution theory
answer

the theory of how people explain other’s behavior (for example, by attributing it to either internal dispositions or to external situations)
question

dispositional attribution
answer

attributing behavior to the person’s disposition and traits
question

situational attribution
answer

attributing behavior to the environment
question

spontaneous trait inference
answer

an effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior
question

fundamental attribution error
answer

the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon other’s behavior; also called \”correspondence bias\” because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition
question

self-fulfilling prophecy
answer

a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
question

behavioral confirmation
answer

a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member