Social Psychology Chapter 10-13

question

Propinquity Effect
answer

The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends.
question

Mere Exposure Effect
answer

The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it.
question

When do we look for similarity v. differences in relationships?
answer

In high-commitment relationships (like serious romances), people choose others who are similar in things like opinions, personality, interests, opinions, and appearance. In low-commitment relationships (like a fling), we tend to choose others who are different from us.
question

Reciprocal Liking
answer

If Person A knows that Person B likes them, they will be more likely to like Person B back.
question

Are attractive people more socially competent?
answer

Yes, because although it is a stereotype, it is true because of self-fulfilling prophecies.
question

Evolutionary Approach to Mate Selection
answer

A theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other (men are attracted to women’s appearances, women are attracted by men’s resources) because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success.
question

Evolutionary Psychology
answer

The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection.
question

Companionate Love
answer

The feelings of intimacy and affection we have for someone that are not accompanied by passion or physiological response.
question

Passionate Love
answer

An intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair.
question

How do different cultures view companionate and passionate love?
answer

American couples tend to value passionate love more than Chinese couples do, while Chinese couples tend to value companionate love more than American couples do. The Taita of Kenya in East Africa, by contrast, value both equally and conceptualize both in romantic love.
question

Is love more valued in the West or the East?
answer

Western societies.
question

Attachment Styles
answer

The expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants. People’s attachment styles can change.
question

Secure Attachment Style
answer

An attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well-liked.
question

Avoidant Attachment Style
answer

An attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships. This is caused by distant caregivers.
question

Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style
answer

An attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one’s desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety. This is caused by inconsistent caregivers.
question

Social Exchange Theory
answer

The idea that people’s feelings about a relationship depend on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else.
question

Comparison Level
answer

People’s expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternate relationship.
question

Comparison Level for Alternatives
answer

People’s expectations about the levels of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternate relationship.
question

Investment Model
answer

The theory that people’s commitment to a relationship depends not only on their satisfaction to the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives, but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it.
question

Equity Theory
answer

The idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs experienced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal.
question

Exchange Relationships
answer

Relationships governed by the need for equity (i.e., for an equal ratio of rewards and costs). Generally newer relationships or acquaintances fall under this category.
question

Communal Relationships
answer

Relationships in which people’s primary concern is being responsive to the other person’s needs. These are generally long-term relationships, like parent-child.
question

_______ are more interested in staying friends with their exes than _________. (Genders)
answer

Women / men
question

People reported liking their online dates less after their first date because they found new ways that they were _________, while profiles usually focused on how they were ________.
answer

dissimilar / similar
question

Prosocial Behavior
answer

Any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
question

Altruism
answer

The desire to help another person, even if it involves a cost to the helper.
question

Kin Selection
answer

The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection.
question

Norm of Reciprocity
answer

The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future.
question

Group Selection Theory
answer

Controversial theory that says that even if individuals might not benefit from altruism, groups may, which might influence people’s decisions to act altruistically.
question

A big reward of helping is:
answer

Feeling good about oneself.
question

Empathy
answer

The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions (e.g. joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them.
question

Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
answer

Batson’s idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person for purely altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain.
question

Altruistic Personality
answer

The qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations.
question

How do the genders differ in their prosocial behavior?
answer

Men do more courageous acts, while women engage in more long-term helping situations.
question

In-Groups
answer

The group with which an individual identifies as a member. We tend to help in-groups out of empathy.
question

Out-Groups
answer

Any group with which an individual does not identify. We tend to help out-groups when there is something in it for us.
question

Are religious people more likely to engage in prosocial behavior?
answer

Religious people are not more likely to feel empathy towards others or help privately, but they are more likely to help when it is in their best interest to do so.
question

The effects of mood on prosocial behavior
answer

Feel Good Do Good (it can make us feel terrific!) Feel Bad Do Good (it can make us feel better.)
question

Urban Overload Hypothesis
answer

The theory that people living in cities are constantly bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it.
question

The effect of residential mobility on prosocial behavior:
answer

People who have stayed in a location for a while engage in more prosocial behavior towards their community.
question

Bystander Effect
answer

The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.
question

Pluralistic Ignorance
answer

The case in which people think that everyone else is interpreting a situation in a certain way, when in fact they are not. Due to normative social influence, people will see others looking unconcerned during ambiguous emergencies and assume everything is okay, thereby portraying an unconcerned look themselves.
question

Diffusion of Responsibility
answer

The phenomenon wherein each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witness’s increases.
question

Five essential steps to help in an emergency:
answer

1.) Notice the emergency 2.) Interpret the event as an emergency 3.) Assume responsibility 4.) Know how to help 5.) Decide to implement the help.
question

How does the type of relationship between individuals affect their likeliness to perform prosocial behaviors?
answer

We are more likely to help people that we are in communal relationships with, with the exception of important tasks that are correlated highly with our self-esteem since it hurts for friends to do better than us in areas of great importance to our self-esteem.
question

Knowing about bystander effect, etc. can make people _________ to help.
answer

more likely
question

Aggression
answer

Intentional behavior aimed at causing physical harm or psychological pain to another person.
question

Hostile Aggression
answer

Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury.
question

Instrumental Aggression
answer

Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain (i.e., a football tackle)
question

When men live in cultures that lack internal and external threats to their survival, they (are / are not) raised to be aggressive.
answer

are not
question

Violence occurs more in cultures that were originally based on herding, rather than __________.
answer

agriculture
question

What types of aggression are men more likely to commit? Women?
answer

Men commit more physical aggression, while women commit more relational aggression (by harming people by manipulating relationships)
question

Think-Drink Effect
answer

Alcohol makes people more aggressive, especially if they believe that it will.
question

Does heat or pain also lead to aggression?
answer

Yes
question

Frustration-Aggression Theory
answer

The theory that frustration — the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal — increases the probability of an aggressive response.
question

Children that needed to wait to play with toys behind a wire screen played more aggressively than a control.
answer

Word.
question

When does frustration increase aggression the most?
answer

Frustration increased aggression most when it is unexpected or when the goal / desired object appears close.
question

If we perceive provocation as being intentional:
answer

we are more likely to reciprocate.
question

People who were told that the experimenter’s assistant was upset over his unfair chemistry grade before he insulted them retaliated (more times, fewer times) than if they were told about the chem grade after he insulted them.
answer

fewer times
question

Aggressive Stimulus
answer

An object that is associated with aggressive responses (e.g., a gun) and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression.
question

Social Learning Theory
answer

The theory that people learn social behavior (e.g., aggression) in large part by observing others and imitating them. (think of Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment)
question

Scripts
answer

Ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from our culture.
question

Does exposure to violent media increase aggression? Why?
answer

Yes, because of physiological arousal, the automatic tendency to imitate, and priming of existing aggressive ideas. Also, long-term, there is a numbing effect.
question

Is it a good idea to advertise during violent or sexually-explicit programming?
answer

They are popular, so companies assume they’re a good idea to advertise during. However, people don’t remember ads as well during violent or sexually-explicit programs as they do during neutral programs.
question

Does punishing aggression reduce it?
answer

It is only a deterrent towards violence if it is prompt and certain, which is not a reality in the American criminal justice system.
question

Catharsis
answer

The notion that “blowing off steam” — by performing a verbally or physically aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive behaviors, or engaging in a fantasy of aggression — relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior. But aggressive acts actually lead to more aggressive acts, not less.
question

What are we supposed to do with our anger?
answer

Calmly expressing anger to our offenders is the best thing to do. Building empathy also counters dehumanization and aggression.
question

Prejudice
answer

A hostile or negative attitude towards people in a distinguishable group, based solely on their membership in that group.
question

Stereotype
answer

A generalization about a group of people, in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
question

Illusory Correlation
answer

The tendency to see relationships, or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated.
question

Are positive stereotypes bad? How?
answer

They are just as damaging because they deny individuality (i.e., “All Asians are smart”).
question

How do emotions play in to prejudices?
answer

If people have strong emotions toward a prejudice, they are immune to logic disproving it.
question

Discrimination
answer

Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group solely because of his or her membership in that group.
question

Are microaggressions real?
answer

Yes
question

Social Distance
answer

A person’s reluctance to get “too close” to another group.
question

Modern Racism
answer

Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes.
question

How can we measure implicit prejudices?
answer

Bogus lie detectors v. pen and paper answer. There is a difference. Also, those computer tests we did in class, even though those are somewhat flawed.
question

How easily are implicit prejudices activated?
answer

It only takes a little anger or frustration to activate them.
question

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
answer

The case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people’s original expectations.
question

Job interview study
answer

About race, etc.
question

Stereotype Threat
answer

The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.
question

Institutional Discrimination
answer

Practices that discriminate, legally or illegally, against a minority group by virtue of its ethnicity, gender, culture, age, sexual orientation, or other target of societal or company prejudice.
question

Institutionalized Racism
answer

Racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm.
question

Institutionalized Sexism
answer

Sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm.
question

Normative Conformity
answer

The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group’s expectations and gain acceptance.
question

We favor ____-groups, even at the expense of _____-groups.
answer

in / out
question

Out-Group Homogeneity
answer

The perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other (homogeneous) than they really are, as well as more similar than members of the in-group are.
question

Ultimate Attribution Error
answer

The tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people.
question

Blaming the Victim
answer

The tendency to blame individuals (make dispositional attributions) for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place.
question

Realistic Conflict Theory
answer

The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination.
question

When ______ are scarce, prejudice grows.
answer

jobs
question

Scapegoating
answer

The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless.
question

Mutual Interdependence
answer

The situation that exists when two or more groups need to depend on one another to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them.
question

The six conditions for when contact reduces prejudice:
answer

–Mutual interdependence –Having a common goal –Equal status –A friendly, informal setting, where in-group and out-group members can interact on a one-to-one basis. –Multiple members of the out-group must be present so that the individual learns that they are typical of their group. –Social norms that promote and support equality among groups must be present.
question

Jigsaw Classroom
answer

A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member