Social institutions

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Social institution
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An established and structured pattern of behaviour or relationships that are accepted as a fundamental part of culture
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5 basic institu
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-family -economic -political -educational -religious
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Families
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-helps society’s members replace themselves -provide protection for the next generations -socialize the young
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Economic
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-helps society’s members meet their physical needs -from hunting/gathering groups to multinational corporations -includes farms, banks, and all businesses
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Political
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-assist members in group decision making -empower individuals, give them a voice -require that all members agree to the decision
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Educational
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Organized the way society passes on its culture, knowledge and values from one generation to another
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Religious
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Help people find an ultimate purpose in their lives
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Development of social institutions : foraging societies
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-the acquisition of food by hunting, fishing, or gathering of plant matter -about 10,000 years ago, everyone lives by foraging -family was the main social institution which raised and educated children
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Example of foraging societies
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Bake pygmies of cameroon
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Baka pygmies of cameroon
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-largest group of hunters and gatherers in the world -live in the tropical rainforest of Central America -their culture and tradition is being threatened by multinational logging, mining and plantation corporations
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Foraging societies: family
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Live in family structures where women are responsible for child rearing
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Foraging societies: economic institutions
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-trap hunting, gathering, damn fishing, and beekeeping -making bows and arrows to trade
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Foraging societies: political institutions
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The group is communal and makes decisions by consensus
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Foraging societies: educational
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Traditions and cultures are passed down from parents and elders to the young
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Foraging societies: religious
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Animist, believe in the spirit of the forest
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Development of social institutions: agricultural societies
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-people began to settle in fertile areas and developed an agricultural way of life (10,000 BCE) -relies on techniques to expand and maintain the land -villages began to grow and social institutions separated from the family -society developed a class system with priestly class, a ruler supported by civil servants, military organizations and merchants who supported an economic class
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Agricultural society example: incas of peru
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-8000 years ago -Indigenous cultures selected and grew potatoes -rural inca farmers continue to rely on potatoes to sustain their lifestyle
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Development of social institutions: industrial societies
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-began in Europe and North America in 19th century and spread to other nations -institutions of greater complexity were established to meet the changing needs of the citizens -modern industrialized nations have 8 major institutions
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8 major institutions in modern industrialized nations
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-family -religion -law -politics -economics -education -medicine -military
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The family as an institution: vanier institution (family)
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Any combination of 2 or more people who are bound together by ties of mutual consent, birth and or adoption or placement and who together, assume responsibilities for variant combinations: -physical maintenance and care of group members -addition of new members through procreation or adoption -socialization of children -social control of members -production, consumption, distribution of goods and services -affective nuturance-love
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3 types of technology:
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1- primitive- natural things which people have adopted for use to make items (spears, clubs) 2- industrial- machines such as steam engine, electrical and fuel powered motors to run machinery 3-post industrial/ information- machines that use a microchip/computer to retrieve, store, transmit and process infi
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3 ways technology changes society and social institutions
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1-displaces existing technology 2-creates new social organizations 3-creates new values and social relationships
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Functionalist perspective of social institutions
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-each aspect of society is interdependent and contributed to society’s functioning as a whole -social institutions work together to serve the basic needs of society and contribute towards the common good of the whole society -society is held together by social consensus -eg-government provides education for children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself runnkng
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Conflict perspective
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-agrees with functionalists that institutions were developed to meet society’s basic needs -believes rich and powerful people force social order on the poor and the weak by controlling major corporations and financing political parties to have their interests made into law
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Role expectations in institutions
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-a persons behaviour changes as they enter a social institution and they assume on a new role -a role expected of a person depends on their position or status within the institution and guides their interaction with other members EG- role of teacher, student and principle -includes both actions and qualities EG-teacher may be expected to do lectures and assign homework but must also be honest and dedicated -each role has certain obligations, duties, privileges, and rights in relation to others -role remains relatively stable even though different people occupy the position
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Role
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Behaviour expected of an individual within a social institution
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Status
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The position of a person has within a social institution
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Monogamy
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Marriage in which. Person is legally allowed only one wife or husband at a time
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Patrilineal system
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When relatives of a family are deemed by society to be from the fathers side only
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Matrilineal system
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When relatives of a family are deemed by society to be from the mothers side only
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Bilateral system
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When relatives of a family are deemed by a society to be from the side of both people
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Polygamy
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Marriage in which a person can legally be married to 2 or more members of the opposite sex at a time
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Service industries
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Occupations in which people, dealing with people, ideas, or information, perform economic activities for others
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Post industrial
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A society in which most people are employed to handle information and supply services rather than produce goods
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An institution is more than bricks and mortars because…
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It can be thought of as an organized and predictable way societies develop to meet their basic needs
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Cultural bound syndrome
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A set of signs and symptoms indicating an abnormality or disease that is specific to a particular culture and that is immune to western style treatment
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Western culture example
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Yuppie flu-causes severe fatigue, dizziness and muscle weakness. Western medicine has been unsuccessful in finding the cause and effective treatment
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Agricultural Major production
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Crops, livestock
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Agricultural occupations for most people
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Farmers, landowners
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Agricultural critical resource
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Land
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Agricultural sources of power
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Landowners, nature, weather
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Industrial major production
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Manufactured goods
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Industrial occupations for most people
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Workers, managers, business owners
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Industrial critical resource
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Natural resources, sizable labour force, energy source, key equipment
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Industrial sources of power
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Owners of key equipment, natural resources, energy
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Information major production
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Service, information
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Information occupations for most people
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Professionals, technicians, entrepreneurs, business owners
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Information critic resource
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Educated work force
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Information sources of power
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Access to knowledge, technical ability
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Alienation
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Lack of job satisfaction resulting from little or no control over working conditions and little social interaction
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5 causes of alienation
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-worker has no power to control working conditions or management decisions -worker feels isolated from co-workers and has difficulty maintaining friendships -worker feels that his or her full potential is not being utilized on the job -worker feels that he or she is treated as an employee, not a person -the work is meaningless, repetitive of boring
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Functionalist perspective on policing
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Duties of the police are: -to detect and prevent crime -to arrest offenders -to maintain order in the community
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Conflict perspective on policing
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-argue there is no social consensus about the status quo -emphasize that industrialized societies have a stratified society that is separated into classes based on income -status quo and many of the laws that support it, is not acceptable to the people at the bottom -distrust police who enforce laws -have incentive to break laws more often because they lack in income necessary to purchase many of the goods middle class people can afford
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4 goals prisons are to accomplish
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-to punish the offender -to protect the public -to deter others from committing a similar crime -to rehabilitate the offender
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Socialization and social restraint
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-Socialization is the process through which an individual acquires a self-identity and the social skills for survival. -it takes place your entire life and is not only necessary for your existence and well being but is also necessary for the preservation and stability of society -all societies socialize individuals through social institutions, by providing a set of values and norms -socialization gives society a measure of social control over its members
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What 2 major forces does socialization depend on?
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-Heredity and environment -heredity determines your physical make up – environment determines how you develop and behave
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How is socialization learned?
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By interacting with other people, begins in very early childhood strongly influence the person you become and is the strongest during early childhood to early adulthood
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Primary agent
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The means by which an individual learns the basic norms and values of society during childhood
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Secondary agent
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The means by which an individual learns further social behaviours and norms for
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Primary agent: Family
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-socialize by direct orders or commands by praise or punishment and by the unconscious actions of our parents as the role models of adults and parents in our young lives -parents transmit society’s norms and values to children through stories -parents find playmates for children
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Secondary agent: schools
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-under control of adult other than parent -teacher is not affectionate like parents -teacher enforces rules and does not allow exceptions like parents do -rules weren’t negotiated like they might have been with parents
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Secondary agent: peer and reference groups
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-grow in importance as child matures into adolescence and then declined rather sharply after school graduation -affect individual development in several ways: /serve as reference group /teach/ socialize individuals about how to share, handle conflict and measure ones physical social and mental abilities
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Secondary agents: media
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-powerful socializing agent -tv is a one sided process in which the individual cannot interact with the agent and the agent sends a message to a passive viewer who has no influence over the message being delivered
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Secondary agents: workplace
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-workplace culture: values, norms, attitudes, ways of relating to others and presenting oneself that are common to an organization -anticipatory socialization: the behaviour expected of individuals when they become doctors, cops, lawyers, teachers or trades peoples
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Secondary agents: religion
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-can have a strong influence on people’s ideas of what is right and wrong in their personal behaviour -a moral code reinforces the basic norms of society -often a persons inner sense of what is right and wrong is formed by a religious upbringing and acts as a social constraint on the persons behaviour

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