Social Deviance Midterm

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Four Contemporary Sociological Functions
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Structural Functionalism conflict theory symbolic interactionism feminist theory
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structural functionalism
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A theoretical perspective that views society as an organized system, analogous to the human system, that is made up of a variety of interrelated parts or structures that work together to generate social stability and maintain society.
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conflict theory
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Conflict and tension are basic facts of social life and are based on power struggle
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symbolic interactionism
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A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
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feminist theory
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A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
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three perspective of defining deviance
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absolutist relativist social power
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absolutist
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roots are in both religious and naturalist assumptions set in their own ways
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relativist
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deviance is not universal
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social power
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powerful vs powerless
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theories of deviance
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strain theory conflict theory social bond theory differential association
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strain theory
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Merton’s theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals
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conflict theory
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Inequality in society produces advantages and disadvantaegs
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social bond theory
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attachment, committment, involvement, belief
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differential association
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social interactions with deviant as opposed to conventional others
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anomie
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state of normlessness where society fails to effectively regulate the expectations or behaviors of its members
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differential opportunity theory
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legitimate vs illegitimate means of obtaining wealth. behaviors and deviance are learned. equal opportunity.
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general strain
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strain at the individual level may result from teh failure to achieve valued goals and also result form negative relations/stimuli
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social disorganization theory
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explains why certian neighborhoods control deviance and why others are unable to minimize or eliminate it
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folways
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simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions and laws
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mores
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norms based on broad societal morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation
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law
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the strongest norms because they are supported by codified social sanctions
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tabboo
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adj. excluded or forbidden from use or mention: proscribed by society as unacceptable or improper
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sociological imagination
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how society makes their own views basedon what they see
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Five Adaptations of the Strain Theory
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conformity innovation ritualism retreatism rebellion
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conformity
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a non deviant adaptation where people continue to engage in legit occupations or educational roles despite enviromental pressures towards deviant behaviors
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conformity
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+ +
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innovation
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involves acceptance of the cultural goal but rejection of legitimate, institutionalized means. innovator means to obtain economic success, criminals.
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innovation
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+ –
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ritualism
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an over conformist. pursuit of the dominant cultural goal of economic success is rejected or abadoned and compulsive conformity to institutional norms.
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ritualism
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– +
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retreatism
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reject cultural goals and institutionalized means. complete escape from the pressures and demands of organized society. more individualistic.
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retreatism
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– –
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rebellion
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rejects the goals and means of the established society but actively attempts to substitute new goals and means in their place. refers to teh role behavior of political deviants who attempt to modify greatly the existing structure of society.
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rebellion
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+ – + –
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four elements of social control theory
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attachment committment belief involvement differential association
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attachment
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the emotional component of the bond.
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committment
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the rational component of the bond
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belief
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the stronger the awareness, understanding, and agreement with the rules and norms of society the less likely to deviate
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involvement
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the more time spent engaged in conforming activities, the less time available to deviate
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differential association
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criminal behavior is learned the same way as ordinary behavior
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frequency
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how many times one may be exposed to behaviors
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duration
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how long the exposure of criminal behavior
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priority
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level of importance placed on association
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intensity
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level of exposures to the criminal behaviors
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differences between positive and negative deviance
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felt reaction why
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approaches in researching deviance
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experimental survey field content analysis
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ehtical considerations
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voluntary participation consent confidentiality irb
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relativist deviance
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assumes that the definition is constructed based on the interactions of those in society
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scientific method
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analysis and implentation of the best way to complete a task
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social construction
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subjective definition or perception of the conditions
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sociological imagination
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link between our personal lives and experiences in our social world
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theory
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set of assumptions
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positive deviance
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intentional behaviors that depart from community norms in honorable ways
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stigma
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mark of deviance
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general strain theory
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strain at the individual level may result from teh failure to achieve valued goals and also result from negative relations
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Institutional anomie theory
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• Argues that the major institutions in the US, including the family, school, and political system, are all dominated by economic institutions, the exaggerated emphasis on monetary success leads to crime and deviance
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Relative deprivation
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• Judging oneself or ones situation as lacking in comparison to a key reference group
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Strain
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• Lack of opportunites for conventional success may lead to strain, which can manifest anger, frustration, and deviance
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Structural impediments
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• Obstacles on the road to conforming success, lack of education, poor acess to legitimate careers etc
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Broken windows theory
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• Basically the notion that social and physical disorder and other forms of crime and deviance
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Collective efficacy
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• Conditions of some neighborhoods where there is trust, cohesion, and a willingness to act for the common good
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Concentric zones
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• A model of urban cities, generally consisting of and moving out from the central business district, the zone in transition, zone of the working class, residential zone and commuter zone
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types of deviance
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physical mental relational subcultural technological elite
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types of deviance in deviant identity
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primary secondary tertiary
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primary
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one who commits deviant acts but are unrecognized
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secondary
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deviant acts are reacted to by others
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tertiary
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identity embracement
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seven stages of deviant identity
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getting caught and publicly identified retrospective interpretation spoiled identity exclusion inclusion treated differently internalization of the label
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Go Really Slow Especially In Timed Isles
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