Social Change and Modernization Narrative Essay

question

Social Change
answer

the transformation of culture and social institutions over time
question

Cyclical Theory of Social Change
answer

views societal change from a historical perspective – Societies are seen as rising and then falling or as continuously moving back and forth between stages of development
question

Ideational Culture
answer

a culture in which truth and knowledge are sought through faith or religion
question

Sensate Culture
answer

type of culture in which people seek knowledge through science
question

Oswald Spengler
answer

German philosopher who argued that cultures grow and decay in cycles (1880-1936)
question

Idealistic Culture
answer

a culture which contains both ideational characteristics and sensate characteristics
question

Principle of Immanent Change
answer

Sorokin’s belief that societies have a natural tendency toward social change.
question

Evolutionary Theory of Social Change
answer

views change as a process that movies in one direction – towards increasing complexity
question

Equilibrium Theory of Social Change
answer

Talcott Parson’s view of social change in which society is likened to a living organism. Change in one part of the social system produces change in all other parts, as the system attempts to regain balance, or equilibrium.
question

Conflict Theory of Social Change
answer

change comes through the mobilization of people struggling for resources
question

Ralf Dahrendorf
answer

proposed conflict theory
question

Talcott Parsons
answer

a Harvard University sociologist that was a key figure in the development of the functionalist theory/perspective. He saw any society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole.
question

Pitrim Sorokin
answer

believed that all societies fluctuate between two extreme forms of culture, ideational and sensate
question

Modernization
answer

The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
question

Modernization Theory
answer

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
question

World System Theory
answer

economic and political connections that tie the world’s countries together
question

Core Nations
answer

Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
question

Peripheral Nations
answer

according to world systems theory, nations that are dependent on core nations for capital, have little or no industrialization (other than what may be brought in by core nations), and have uneven patterns of urbanization
question

Semiperipheral Nations
answer

according to world systems theory, nations that are more developed than peripheral nations but less developed than core nations
question

External Debt
answer

The portion of the public debt owed to foreign citizens, firms, and institutions

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member