SOCIAL CH 1

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social psychology
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scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
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focus of social psychology
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on individuals, many experiments; less focused on differences and more on individual view and how they affect one another
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sociology
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the study of people in groups & societies
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social psychology is the scientific study of
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social thinking, social influence, and social relationships
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social thinking
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how we perceive others and ourselves, what we believe, judgements we make, our attitudes
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social influence
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culture, pressure to conform, persuasion, groups of people
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social relations
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prejudice, aggression, attraction and intimacy, helping
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social psychology’s big ideas about social thinking
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(1) we construct our social reality (2) our social intuitions are powerful, sometimes perilous (3) attitudes shape and are shaped by behavior
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big ideas in social psychology about social influences
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social influences shape behavior, dispositions shape behavior
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big ideas in social psychology about social relations
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social behavior is also biological behavior, feelings and actions toward people are sometimes negative/positive
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social neuroscience
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an interdisciplinary field that explores the neural bases of social and emotional processes and behaviors, and how these processes and behaviors affect our brain and biology
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obvious ways values enter psychology
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choose research topics, types of people, object of analysis
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non-obvious ways values enter psychology
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subjective aspects of science, psychology concepts contain hidden values
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culture
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the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from our generation to the next
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social representation
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a society’s widely held ideas adn values, including assumptions and cultural ideologies; help us make sense of the world
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psychology concepts hidden values
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defining the good life, professional advice, forming concepts, labeling
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hindsight bias
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tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out; \”I knew it all along\” phenomenon
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theory
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used to explain events, to make predictions; scientific shorthand
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hypothesis
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testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
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biasing influence in survey research
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order of questions, wording of questions, response options
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3 purposes of hypotheses
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(1) test a theory (2) give direction to research (3) make good theories practical
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a good theory
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effectively summarizes many observations, makes clear predictions
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good theory makes clear predictions that can be used to
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(1) confirm/modify the theory (2) generate new exploration (3) suggest practical applications
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laboratory research
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controlled situation
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field research
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everyday situations; research done in natural real-life settings outside the laboratory
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correlational research
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study of naturally occurring relationships among variables
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experimental research
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studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others.
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advantages of correlational research
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involves important variables in natural settings
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disadvantages of correlational research
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ambiguous interpretations of cause and effect
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correlation and causation
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when 2 variables correlate any combination of 3 explanations is possible. Either one may cause the other, or both may be affected by an underlying \”third factor\”
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correlate
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knowing that 2 variables change together
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time lagged correlations
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reveal the sequence of events
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random sampling
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survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion
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unrepresentative sample
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how closely the sample represents the population under study matters greatly
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order of questions
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another source of bias
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response options
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bias can be caused by this
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framing
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the way a question or an issue is posed; can influence people’s decisions and expressed opinions
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independent variables
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experimental factor that a researcher manipulates
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control
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the essential ingredient of experiment that we hold constant
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2 essential ingredients of social psychology experiment
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control, random assignment
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dependent variable
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variable being measured, may depend on manipulations of the independent variables
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the greater equalizer
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random assignment
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random assignment
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all persons have same chance of being in a given condition
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mundane realism
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degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
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experimental realism
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degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
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deception
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in research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods and purposes
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demand characteristics
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cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
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informed consent
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an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
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debriefing
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in social psychology the post experimental explanation of a study to its participants; usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feelings
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advantages of experimental research
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can explore cause and effect by controlling variables and by random assignment
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disadvantages of experimental research
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some important variables cannot be studies with experiments
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objective reality
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exists but always viewed through lens of belief and values
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thinking, memory, and attitudes all operate on 2 levels
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conscious, deliberate; aka dual processing
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evolutionary psychologists say
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our inherited human nature predisposes us to behave in ways that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce
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confounding variable
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3rd variable that may effect the results of a correlation

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