SOCI Chapter 6 Quiz

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
deviance
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
behavioral deviance
based on persons intentional or inadvertent actions (drinking too much, robbing a bank, losing money at casino, laughing at funeral)
social audience
the critical variable in the study of deviance
crime
behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms and or other negative sanctions
juvenile delinquency
refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
status offenses
illegal only when committed by younger people (cutting school or running away from home)
social control
refers to the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance
internal social control
takes place through socialization
external social control
use of negative sanctions
criminology
the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons
strain theory
people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals
conformity
occurs when people accept culturally approved goals and pursue them through approved means
innovation
occurs when people accept society’s goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them
ritualism
occurs when people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means for achieving them
retreatism
occurs when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them
rebellion
occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them and advocate an alternative set of goals or means
illegitimate opportunity structures
circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through illegitimate channels
differential association theory
states that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance that conformity
rational choice theory of deviance
states that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions
social bond theory
holds that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a persons ties to society are weakened or broken
labeling theory
states that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants and they come to accept the label placed upon them and begin to act accordingly
primary deviance
refers to the initial act of rule breaking
secondary deviance
occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior
tertiary deviance
occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as non deviant
violent crime
consists of actions–murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault– involving force or the threat of force against others
property crimes
include burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft and arson
victimless crimes
they involve a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults
occupational crime
comprises illegal activités committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs
corporate crime
illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support
internet crime
consists of FBI related scams, identity theft, advance fee fraud, nonauction/nondelivery of merchandise and overpayment fraud
organized crime
a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit
political crime
refers to illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government or overthrow it
terrorism
the calculated, unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government , organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic or social objective
criminal justice system
refers to the local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes and treat and rehabilitate criminals
punishment
any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed

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