SOC200 Midterm Study Guide

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d. changing and stable
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1. Sociology is _____. a. neither changing nor stable b. changing c. stable d. changing and stable
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d. coined the term \”sociology.
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2. August Comte is known for: a. conducting the first sociological research. b. developing the first sociology program. c. writing the first sociology textbook. d. coined the term \”sociology.\”
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d. see women are more powerful than men.
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3. Feminist theory is a type of contemporary theory that does not a. provide new ways of seeing the world. b. analyze the status of men and women in society. c. have the goal of improving women’s lives. d. see women are more powerful than men.
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d. functionalist
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4. When one part of society is not working, it affects the rest of society and causes social problems. This statement reflects the _____ approach. a. symbolic interactionist b. microsociological c. conflict d. functionalist
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c. reproduction
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5. At its most basic level, the function of the family is _____. a. emotional support b. economic support c. reproduction d. marriage
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d. viewing social behavior from the perspective of those engaged in it
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6. An important concept in Weber’s sociology is verstehen which refers to: a. approaching the study of society from a value-free perspective b. social action c. a focus on the political systems of society d. viewing social behavior from the perspective of those engaged in it
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b. embedded in society.
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7. Sociologists believe that persistent problems in the U.S. are a. the consequence of free will b. embedded in society. c. caused by people with psychological problems. d. largely the result of individual behavior.
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d. Jane Addams
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8. The Chicago School sociologist who was a leader in the settlement house movement and who did systematic research geared toward improving the lives of the dispossessed groups within the city was: a. Lester Ward b. Robert Park c. George Herbert Mead d. Jane Addams
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d. W.E.B. Du Bois
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9. _____ was the first Black person in any field to earn a PhD. a. Ida B. Wells-Barnett b. Jane Addams c. Robert Parks d. W.E.B. Du Bois
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d. Karl Marx
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10. Conflict theory originated in the work of _____. a. Emile Durkheim b. Robert Parks c. Max Weber d. Karl Marx
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d. although societies are interconnected, their social and economic systems remain very separated
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11. Which of the following is not true about the global perspective in sociology? a. sociologists consider comparing and contrasting societies across cultures valuable b. the global perspective is essential to the study of change in society c. a global perspective goes beyond simple comparisons of cultures d. although societies are interconnected, their social and economic systems remain very separated
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c. comprehend human society and its influence on the lives of human beings.
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12. According to Mills, the specific task of sociology is to a. promote the use of \”verstehen\” to understand social behavior from the point of view of those who engaged in it. b. help individuals solve their problems. c. comprehend human society and its influence on the lives of human beings. d. expose the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie.
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a. their belief that sociology could alleviate the negative
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13. The early American sociologists are characterized by a. their belief that sociology could alleviate the negative consequences of society. b. their extremely theoretical approach to problems. c. their adherence to the conflict perspective primarily. d. their lack of interest in research.
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d. the black teens felt embarrassed and stigmatized by being pregnant.
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14. Elaine Bell Kaplan’s research on black teenage motherhood concluded that a. black women don’t value success as much as white women do. b. they always develop complete sexual identities. c. the black community condones teen pregnancy. d. the black teens felt embarrassed and stigmatized by being pregnant.
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a. people in society are held together by belief systems.
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15. According to Emile Durkheim a. people in society are held together by belief systems. b. deviance has no place in a \”healthy\” society. c. the best theoretical approach to the study of society is social conflict theory. d. the economic system has the most important influence on human thought and behavior.
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c. teach students the uncomfortable truth about the world.
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16. Weber was concerned with the responsibility of sociologists. He stated that sociologists should a. use their research to promote particular political positions. b. theorize without trying to be empirical. c. teach students the uncomfortable truth about the world. d. avoid examining unpopular opinions and views.
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b. Functionalism
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17. Emile Durkheim’s work is the foundation for which major theoretical perspective? a. Feminism b. Functionalism c. Conflict theory d. Symbolic interactionism
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d. Marx considered all of society to be shaped by economic forces.
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18. Which of the following statements about Marx is true? a. Marx’s evolutionary concept of societal development and change is almost identical to that of Durkheim’s. b. A limitation of Marx’s work was his failure to recognize the effects of class on social behavior. c. Marx focused more on individuals than social structure in his analysis of society. d. Marx considered all of society to be shaped by economic forces.
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b. social behavior originates in the structure of society.
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19. Functionalist theorists and conflict theorists both share the belief that a. theory should focus on interpersonal, face-to-face interaction. b. social behavior originates in the structure of society. c. power and exploitation are the basis for order in society. d. all parts of society work together.
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a. sociologists use research techniques and theories that the media may not use to explain social issues.
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20. Sociology differs from media programs that feature human problems in that a. sociologists use research techniques and theories that the media may not use to explain social issues. b. sociologists do not study the types of problems that appear on television programs. c. the media focuses on problem behavior, sociology does not. d. the media are interested in individuals—sociologists are not.
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a. symbolic interactionism
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21. The Thomas dictum states that people behave according to what they believe to be real, not necessarily what is objectively true. This principle is fundamental to which type of sociological theory? a. symbolic interactionism b. functionalism c. feminism d. conflict theory
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d. social patterns that are external to individuals.
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22. Durkheim conceptualized social facts as a. one’s personal drives and motivations. b. the embodiment of sui generic. c. the direct outgrowth of our biological drives. d. social patterns that are external to individuals.
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d. encompasses a global perspective.
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23. Within sociology, the concept of diversity a. is not considered one of the most important concepts for study. b. applies only to different cultural orientations. c. is focused exclusively on different groups d. encompasses a global perspective.
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b. microsociology
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24. Theoretical frameworks that center on face-to-face social interaction are categorized as _____. a. theories of the middle range b. microsociology c. macrosociology d. universalistic sociology
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a. the capitalist class control the production of ideas.
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25. According to Marx, the beliefs of the common people tend to support the interests of the capitalist system, not the workers themselves. This is because a. the capitalist class control the production of ideas. b. workers do not understand how capitalism works. c. workers have no idea what their own interests are, or what would benefit them. d. all of these are true
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a. places too much emphasis on social stability, and overlooks the roles of power and conflict in society
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26. Critics of functionalism argue that it: a. places too much emphasis on social stability, and overlooks the roles of power and conflict in society b. all of these are true c. fails to emphasize the fact that society’s component parts work together as a whole system d. is too microsociological in its approach
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c. Sociologists achieve critical distance through their willingness to question the forces that shape behavior.
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27. What role do sociologists play while conducting their research on society? a. Sociologists are usually strangers to the practices they study. b. Sociologists must avoid studying aspects of society that they have a personal interest in. c. Sociologists achieve critical distance through their willingness to question the forces that shape behavior. d. Most sociologists are primarily academics and typically study only areas within the academy.
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c. was interested in urban problems.
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28. Robert Park a. used a reform-based approach. b. emphasized qualitative research. c. was interested in urban problems. d. focused on immigrant workers.
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b. the second wave of feminism
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29. According to feminist theory, prior to _____, women were largely absent from sociological research. a. World War II b. the second wave of feminism c. the Industrial Revolution d. the Civil War
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b. the role of coercion and power.
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30. Functionalism emphasizes all of the following except a. shared public values. b. the role of coercion and power. c. the order that exists in society. d. the consensus that exists in society.
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b. an increase in the influence of capitalism.
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31. The emergence of a global culture has resulted in a. a greater appreciation for the diverse folk cultures throughout the world. b. an increase in the influence of capitalism. c. a significant decrease in ethnocentrism throughout the world. d. a more heterogeneous world culture.
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b. White girls in particular believe they are judged according to media standards of beauty.
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32. Sociological research on the impact of media images has found that a. most people are unable to distinguish between fantasy on television and real life. b. White girls in particular believe they are judged according to media standards of beauty. c. media has little overall influence of individual lives. d. music videos are the only type of media that does not have a negative impact.
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a. Cultural studies
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33. _____ is an interdisciplinary field that builds on symbolic interactionism and is often critical of classical sociological approaches. a. Cultural studies b. Communication studies c. Critical sociology d. Conflict analysis
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d. politicized.
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34. The concept of cultural hegemony implies that culture is highly a. religious. b. gendered. c. racist. d. politicized.
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c. values, styles, and language.
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35. Mass media influences a. Language, but not styles. b. Values alone. c. values, styles, and language. d. styles, but not values.
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a. the excessive influence of one culture in society.
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36. Cultural hegemony is the term for a. the excessive influence of one culture in society. b. the commercialization of the media. c. the resistance of localized cultures to the dominant culture. d. phenomena such as the struggle between \”McWorld vs. Jihad.\”
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d. Culture is the only influence on human behavior.
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37. What is the relationship between biology and culture in shaping human behavior? a. The natural environment is the biggest determinant of human behavior. b. Human biology determines our behavior. c. Human biology sets limits and provides the capacities for different types of behavior. d. Culture is the only influence on human behavior.
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d. Max Weber
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38. The classic analysis of the Protestant work ethic and the emergence of capitalism was conducted by _____. a. Emile Durkheim b. Robert Putnam c. Pierre Bourdieu d. Max Weber
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b. a decline in shared values and an increase in social disorder.
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39. In Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam argues that there has been a decline in civic engagement resulting in a. more demands for social welfare programs from the government. b. a decline in shared values and an increase in social disorder. c. economic hardship for many voluntary organizations. d. a lack of socialization opportunities for children.
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b. cultural lag.
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40. When one aspect of culture changes more slowly than other aspects, sociologists call this a. cultural construction. b. cultural lag. c. cultural leveling. d. cultural obstructions.
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a. the cultural values that it is based on.
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41. From the perspective of cultural relativism, in order to understand a particular cultural practice we must know a. the cultural values that it is based on. b. whether or not it is practiced by the majority of people in a society. c. how much harm it does. d. how it compares to the practices of our own culture.
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d. popular
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42. Mass-produced culture (e.g. popular music and films) and other parts of culture that are shared by most people are called _____ culture. a. high b. institutional c. elite d. popular
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d. generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
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43. The strength or seriousness of social sanctions is a. harsh, regardless of how strictly the norm is held. b. unrelated to the type of norm that is violated. c. not something that sociologists consider in the study of norm violations. d. generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
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d. even seemingly \”normal\” practices have cultural roots.
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44. The discussion of birthday traditions included in the text demonstrates that a. some forms of celebration are universal. b. American birthday traditions represent cultural lag. c. U.S. culture dominates globally, even in birthday practices. d. even seemingly \”normal\” practices have cultural roots.
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a. 42 percent
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45. Television is so ever-present in people’s lives that today about _____ of U.S. households are \”constant television households\” in which the television is on almost all of the time. a. 42 percent b. 2 percent c. 24 percent d. 12 percent
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d. folkways and mores
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46. Two classic cultural concepts associated with the work of William Graham Sumner are _____. a. dominant culture and subcultures b. explicit and implicit norms c. culture traits and culture concepts d. folkways and mores
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a. may result in violence, including terrorism, war, and genocide.
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47. Extreme ethnocentrism a. may result in violence, including terrorism, war, and genocide. b. is rare. c. has not been studied by sociologists. d. is found primarily in less developed countries.
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c. is ephemeral, unpredictable and constantly changing.
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48. According to the new cultural studies perspective, culture a. prevents deviance from occurring. b. does not include popular or widely understood artifacts. c. is ephemeral, unpredictable and constantly changing. d. provides stability in society.
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c. Beliefs must be true in order for them to guide human behavior.
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49. Which of the following statements is false in regards to beliefs? a. Shared beliefs hold people in a group or society together. b. Beliefs are the basis for many norms and values in a society. c. Beliefs must be true in order for them to guide human behavior. d. Beliefs may be so strongly held that it is difficult to consider any contradictory information.
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a. All of these choices are true.
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50. As an element of culture, language is important because a. All of these choices are true. b. language enables us to learn social skills. c. it enables a person to become a part of society. d. it permits the formation of culture
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c. norms
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51. The specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation are called _____. a. belief-based actualizations b. directives c. norms d. culture-constructs
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a. symbolic interaction
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52. According to the text, the interdisciplinary field known as cultural studies builds on the insights of _____. a. symbolic interaction b. feminist theory c. functionalism d. conflict theory
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b. Culture promotes solidarity within society.
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53. Which of the following statements is false regarding culture from a conflict perspective? a. Culture is dominated by economic interests. b. Culture promotes solidarity within society. c. Cultural conflict may be driven by intense group hatred. d. Culture is produced within institutions that perpetuate inequality.
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b. innovation
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54. The invention of subways and trains illustrates which cause of social change? a. change in the societal condition b. innovation c. the imposition of cultural change by an outside agency d. cultural diffusion
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d. take the expectations of their culture for granted.
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55. In their day-to- day lives, most people a. have to consciously think about their cultural practices. b. spend a lot of time questioning why they engage in certain behaviors. c. ignore their own cultural traditions. d. take the expectations of their culture for granted.
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d. a phenomena should be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears.
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56. Cultural relativism is the idea that a. cultures are created in reaction to social change. b. things should be viewed from one’s own point of view. c. culture is diffused throughout the world. d. a phenomena should be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears.
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b. Values define what is considered desirable and morally correct.
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57. Which of the following statements about values is true? a. Societal values are actually realized or achieved most of the time. b. Values define what is considered desirable and morally correct. c. Values most often create conflict. d. Values are not guides for behavior because they are too abstract.
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b. the pervasive influence of just one culture.
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58. Cultural hegemony refers to a. the social agreement that the powerful should control the media. b. the pervasive influence of just one culture. c. multiple cultures merging to create a new mass media. d. the belief that mass media’s influence is larger than desirable.
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a. Culture shock can only be experienced in a foreign country.
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59. Which of the following statements about culture shock is false? a. Culture shock can only be experienced in a foreign country. b. Culture shock may result from being in a different culture. c. Rapidly changing cultural conditions may produce culture shock. d. Some of the people displaced by Hurricane Katrina have experienced culture shock.
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a. objects created in a given culture.
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60. Material culture consists of a. objects created in a given culture. b. ideas about what is right and wrong. c. ideas and beliefs of a group of people. d. laws, customs, and ideas.
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d. open-ended questions
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61. Which type of survey questions are analyzed qualitatively? a. observational data b. closed-ended questions c. survey data d. open-ended questions

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