SLP Praxis: Practice Test Questions

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Single Subject Experimental Design
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Experimental design involving one or a few subjects
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Simple Harmonic Motion
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Back and forth movement of particles when that movement is symmetrical and periodic
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Sinusoidal Wave
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One peak and one valley; single frequency and it is a result of a simple harmonic wave
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Rarefaction
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Thinning of air; returning to equilibrium
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Aperiodic wave
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Waves that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals; their vibratory patterns are random and difficult to predict from one time interval to the next.
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Octave
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Indication of the interval between two frequencies
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Rationalization
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Defense mechanism that is logical but untrue reason why something occurred.
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Displacement
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Defense mechanism when a client takes his feelings and transfers them to a safe object/person (SLP for example)
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Projection
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Defense mechanism where the client attribute own emotions to someone else.
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Repression
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Defense mechanism where the client keeps his/her thoughts to themselves–not aware of these feelings.
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Cuneiforms
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Cartilages that are cone shaped and located under the mucous membrane that covers the aryepiglottic folds.
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Statistical Regression
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Behavior that goes from extreme high to extreme low.
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Maturational variables
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Biological changes within participants themselves; researchers can not adjust these variables
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Manometric assessment
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Measures pressure in the upper and lower esophagus.
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Ultrasound examination
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Measure tongue movement and hyoid movement.
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Videofluorographic Assessment
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Assessment of oropharyngeal swallow involving lateral and anterior-posterior (A-P) plane examinations.
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Compression
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Phase of sound in which the vibratory movements of an object increase the density of air molecules because the molecules are compressed or condensed.
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Single subject experimental design
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Design that establishes efficacy of treatment procedures and establishes cause-effect based on individual performances under different conditions; Absence of control groups; Intensive study of a few individuals; repeated measures of behaviors before a treatment is administered.
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Digastric
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Muscle located under the jaw and extends from the mastoid process to the symphysis menti; part of the suprahyoid group of muscles and when it contracts it elevates the hyoid.
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Concrete Operations Stage
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Stage that employs logical causality.
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Inductive Method
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Method where the researcher experiments first and explains later
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Deductive Method
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Method where the researcher explains first and verifies later.
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Multiple baseline design
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Design where effects of treatment are demonstrated by showing that untreated skills did NOT change and ONLY treated skills did.
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24-33 months
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When is past tense -ed mastered in typically developing children.
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Nativist Theory
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Theory where reinforcement is unnecessary because language is innate.
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Behaviorist theory
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Theory where you have stimulation, response, and reinforcement.
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Cognitive Theory
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Theory where it is a regulation of learning and internal aspects of behaviors.
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Hypertension
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Prevalent in African American adults that results in hemorrhagic strokes.
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Cross Sectional Studies
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Investigator observes differences BETWEEN subjects of different ages to generalize about developmental changes that would occur within subjects as they mature.
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Internal Intercostal
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11 paired muscles pull the ribs downward to decrease the diameter of the thoracic cavity for exhalation.
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Hawthorne Effect
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Results are affected by participants knowledge that they are taking part in an experiment or they are being treated differently than usual.
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External Validity
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Generalizability to other settings, populations, treatment variables, and measurement variables the effect can be generalized.
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7-11 years
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Age of the concrete operations stage of cognitive development.
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Group Designs
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Design that is good at establishing internal validity, establish cause-effect relationships, and their requirement of randomization may be difficult.
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Internal Validity
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Certain variables may change simply because they are measured more than once. This is a problem of testing, reducing ____.
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Serratus Anterior
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Muscle that elevates ribs 1-9.
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Refraction
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When sound waves move from one medium to another, the motion causes a bending of the sound wave due to change in its speed of propagation.
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Reflection
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Phenomenon of sound waves traveling back after hitting an obstacle with no change in speed of propagation.
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Ethnographic Studies
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Mostly descriptive and observable studies.
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Dynamic Assessment
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Assessment that evaluates over time and uses the test-teach-retest format.
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AIDS Dementia Complex
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Type of disorder where the onset is slow but deterioration is rapid in the final stages. Symptoms include tremors, seizures, gait problems, facial nerve paralysis, incontinence, and confustion, depression, hallucinations, delusions, and mutism in the final stage.
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Paradoxical VF Motion
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Patient’s true VFs adduct instead of abduct during inhalation. Pt’s VFs remain closed throughout the respiratory cycle.
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Esophageal Phase
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The patient has a weak CP, causing difficulties in passing the bolus through the CP muscle and past the 7th cervical vertebrae. Which phase would be disordered?
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Total Parenternal Nutrition
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Child has a major dysfunction in the GI tract; child had short bowel syndrome, resulting in the removal of a major part of the intestines. What would the GI doctor recommend?
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Allophones
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May vary from production to production.
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Childhood AOS
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Disorder with repetition of sounds and syllables, unusual errors of articulation, such as metathesis (axe/ask), deviations in prosody.
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Speech reading
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A person who deciphers speech by looking at the face of the speaker and using visual cues to understand what the speaker is saying.
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Van Riper’s Approach to Stuttering
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Approach with the goal is fluent stuttering.
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/w/
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A semi-vowel that is voiced bilabial glide that is anterior and continuant.
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Integral practice
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Treatment approach’s aim is to use simultaneous practice to bring to consciousness the look and sound of the target speech output.
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20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
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Sensitivity to sound of the normal ear of a young adult is ___ to ___ Hz.
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Electroglottography
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Non invasive procedure yields an indirect measure of VF closure patterns. Surface electrodes placed on both sides of the thyroid cartilage and a high frequency electric current is measured.
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Electromyography
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Invasive procedure directly measures laryngeal function to study the pattern of electrical activity of the VFs and to view muscle activity patterns. Insertion of needles electrodes into the patient’s peripheral laryngeal muscles.
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Class I Malocclusion
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Misaligned teeth
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Class II Malocclusion
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Overbite
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Class III Malocclusion
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Underbite
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Conduction Aphasia
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This type of aphasia is characterized by good syntax, prosody, and articulation. They have poor repetition
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Vocal Nodules
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Lesions that are typically bilateral and appear at the junction of the anterior and middle third portion of the folds.
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Complex sentence
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One independent clause and one dependent clause
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2-6 oz of liquid per feeding
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Average most 1 month old infants consume
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Ratio scale
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Numerical values must be related to an absolute zero point.
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Nominal scale
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Category is present/absent (e.g. never, sometimes, always)
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Interval scale
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Numerical scale that can be arranged according to rank orders/levels.
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Ordinal scale
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Numerical scale that can be arranged according to rank orders/levels (e.g. greater than or less than concepts).
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Cued speech
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Speech with manual cues that represent sounds of speech.
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Stress
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Characteristic of syllables for it can change the meanings of words.
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Juncture
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Combination of suprasegmentals- intonation and pausing that mark special distinctions or grammatical divisions in speech.
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Van Riper’s approach to Artic
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Focus on phonetic placement, auditory discrimination, and drill-like practice at increasingly complex motor levels until accurate production is automatized.
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Otosclerosis
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Spongy growth that starts on the footplate of the stapes and causes it to become rigid.
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Neurogenic Stuttering
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Type of stuttering when the pt has disfluencies on function words and in imitated speech, lack of adaptation, minimal or no effect of masking noise.
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pH probe
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A study that is used to quantify the time and frequency of GI reflux into the esophagus
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Carhart’s notch
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Specific hearing loss at 2000 Hz by bone conduction testing.
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Schizophrenia
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Talks to self, confused language, talks about events and experiences that may be unreal.
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Sound spectography
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Graphic representation of sound wave’s intensity and frequency as a function of time, yields a picture that reflects resonant characteristics of the vocal tract and the harmonic nature of the glottal sound source.
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Visi pitch
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Instrument used to measure frequency range, optimal pitch and habitual pitch. No measuring of nasality or resonance.
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Weber test
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A screening test for hearing that uses a vibrating tuning fork (which is placed on the middle of the forehead) to detect unilateral conductive hearing loss and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

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