Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The “self”as the
controller of Behavior
We tend to assign causal status
to events that immediately precede behavior, and when causal variables are not readily apparent in the immediate, surrounding environment, the tendency to turn to internal causes is strong
Hypothetical constructs such as willpower and drive
are explanatory fictions that bring us no closer to understanding the behaviors they claim to explain and lead to circular reasoning
Skinner (1953) conceptualized self-control as a two response phenomenon
The controlling response affects variables in such a way as to change the probability of the other, the controlled response
We define self-management as
the personal application of behavior change tactics that produce a desired change in behavior.
Self-management is a relative concept
A behavior program may entail a small degree of self-management or be totally conceived, designed, and implemented by the person
Although self-control and self-management appear to be interchangeable in literature
we recommended self-management be used in reference to a person acting in some way in order to change his subsequent behavior
Self-control implies
that the ultimate control of behavior lies within the person, but the causal factors for “self-control” are to be found in a person’s experiences with his environment
“seems to suggest controlling a (separate) self inside or (that there is) a self inside controlling external behavior
self-control is also used to refer to a person’s
ability to “delay gratification”by responding to achieve a delayed, but larger or higher quality reward instead of acting to obtain an immediate, less valuable reward
Four uses of self-management are to
>live a more effective and efficient daily life
>break bad habits and acquire good ones
>accomplish difficult task
>achieve personal lifestyle goals
Advantages and Benefits of learning and teaching self-management skills include:
>self-management can influence behavior not accessible to external change agents
>external agents often miss important instances of behavior
>self-management can promote the generalization and maintenance of behavior change
> a small repertoire of self-management skills can control many behaviors
>People with diverse abilities can learn self-management skills
>Some people perform better under self-selected task and performance criteria
> people with good self-management skills contribute to to more efficient and effective group environments
>teaching students self-management skills provides meaningful practice for other area of the curriculum
>self-management is the ultimate goal of education
>it benefits society
>helps a person feel free
> self-management makes a person feel good
Antecedent-based self-management tactics feature the manipulation of events or stimuli antecedent to the target(controlled) behavior, such as the following:
>manipulating motivating operations to make a desired (or undesired) behavior more (or less) likely
>providing response prompts
>performing the initital steps of a behavioral change to ensure being confronted later with a discriminative stimulus that will evoke the desired behavior
>removing the materials required for an undesired behavior
>limiting an undesired behavior to restricted stimulus conditions
>dedicating a specific environment for a desired behavior
Self-monitoring is a
procedure whereby a person observes and responds to, usually by recording, the behavior he is trying to change
Originally developed as a method of clinical assessment for collecting data
on behavior that only the client could observe, self-monitoring evolved into the most widely used and studied self management strategy b/c it often results in desired behavior change.
self-monitoring is often combined with
goal setting and self evaluation. A person using self-evaluation compares her performance with a predetermined goal or standard
self-monitoring is often part of an intervention that includes
reinforcement for meeting either self- or teacher selected goals.
It is difficult to determine how self-monitoring works
B/c the procedure necessarily includes, and is therefore confounded by, private events(covert verbal behavior), it often includes either explicit or implicit contingencies of reinforcement
children can be taught to self-monitor and self record
their behavior accurately by means of a faded matching technique, in which the child is rewarded initially for producing data that match the teacher’s or parents data. Over time the child is required to match the adult’s record less often, eventually monitoring the behavior independently
Accuracy of self-monitoring is neither necessary nor sufficient to achieve improvement
in the behavior being monitored
Guidelines for self-monitoring
>provide materials that make self-monitoring easy
>provide supplementary cues or prompts
>self-monitor the most important dimension of the target
>self-monitor early and often, but do not interrupt the flow of a desired behavior targeted for increase
>reinforce accurate self-monitoring
As a technical term, self-reinforcement (as also, self-punishment) is a misnomer
Although behavior can be changed by self-administered consequences, the variables influencing the controlling response make such self-management tactics more than straightforward application of operant reinforcement
self-administered contingencies analogous to
positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment can be incorporated into self-management programs
When designing self-management programs involving self-administered consequences, a person should:
>select a small, easy-to-deliver consequences
>set a meaningful but easy-to-meet criterion for reinforcement
> eliminate bootleg reinforcement
> If necessary, put someone else in control of delivery consequences
>use the least complicated and intrusive contingencies that will be effective
self-instruction(talking to oneself)
can function as controlling responses(verbal mediation) that affect the occurrence of other behaviors
Habit reversal
clients are taught to self-monitor their unwanted habits and interrupt the behavior chain as early as possible by engaging in behavior incompatible with the problem behavior
Systematic desensitization
A type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principle of counterconditioning.
Massed practice
A self-directed behavior change technique in which the person forces himself to perform an undesired behavior (e.g., a compulsive ritual) repeatedly, which sometimes decreases the future frequency of the behavior.,
6 steps in designing and implementing a self-management program:
Step 1: specify a goal and define the behavior to be changed
Step 2: begin self-monitoring the behavior
Step 3: Create contingencies that will compete with natural contingencies
Step 4: go public with the commitment to change behavior
Step 5: Get a self-management partner
Step 6: Continually evaluate and redesign the program as needed
The most fundamental principle of self management is that
behavior changes behavior

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