RTV exam 2

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What are the four selective processes
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Selective Exposure Selective Attention Selective Perception Selective Retention
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If a viewer watches a political ad and disapproves of it and chooses to not remember it, which of the selective processes is enacted here?
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selective retention
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What is Gatekeeping? Why is that different than Agenda Setting
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TV news is NOT reality but a \”construction of reality.\” News media act as a filter on information through news-making practices. different from agenda setting because it pick the topics period, not just focus on one or another topic stated.
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What is a Hostile Media Effect? Why is this strongest among partisans?
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HME is the perception that news is biased against your \”side\” of an issue. HME is strongest among solid partisans. Has been found to exist among non-partisans in their perceptions of news about their country or culture as well as sports fans.
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Why are sound bites decreasing and image bites increasing?
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they are easier to manipulate and pull quotes out of context.
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What was the campaign cover in 2012 break down?
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romeny had more negative coverage on NSNBC, and Obama had way more negative coverage on fox. overall they focused most on strategy, then personal, then domestic issues.
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in 2012 What was most campaign coverage focused on? Why does this make sense?
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Strategy. because it tells how the candidate will act in office???
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The Communications Act of 1934 established what governmental entity?
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Established the FCC Because broadcast media occupy the public airwaves, they have an obligation to operate in \”the public interest, convenience, and necessity.\”
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What do sections 312 & 315: Equal Access and Equal Time state?
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Equal Access and Equal Time Stations must provide reasonable access to all legally qualified candidates for federal office If time is given or sold to one candidate, it must be given or sold to all others Coverage of bona fide news events typically excluded from this rule
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What is the Fourth Estate? Why did Spiro Agnew bring this up in his speech?
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Vice-President Spiro Agnew made a series of speeches in 1969 accusing the media of bias, noting in particular: Instant analysis of presidential speeches. Media’s power to \”select.\” Media’s emphasis on bad news. Media’s near monopoly in providing information.
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Who receives better news coverage, Republicans or Democrats?
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Democrats
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What can the Ron Paul clip tell us about news media objectivity?
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What are the five types of political advertising
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Candidate Party Issue (Independent groups) Referenda or Propositions Corporate Advocacy
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What are the cognitive effects of political ads?
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Political ads increase voter knowledge about issues. Voters learn more issue information from spots than from TV news or TV debates. Ads increase the salience of issues for voters and sometimes affecting the agenda of issues in the NEWS.
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What are the evaluative effects of political advertising?
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Political advertising can affect the evaluation of political candidates, in either a positive or a negative direction. Issue ads are generally more effective than image ads, particularly at enhancing candidate image.
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What are the purposes of political advertisements?
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(1) Name Recognition {more common for less popular candidates; Kennedy ad is likely most known}; (2) Agenda Setting – to convince you of issues important to candidate; (3) Image Building – personality; for you to know them; (4) Issue Exposition; (5) Fundraising
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Who was the living room candidate?
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\”It’s Morning in America\” is a political advertisement by what candidate?
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Ronald Regan
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Televised political advertising is most effective when the level of the voter involvement is low. Why?
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because the information is absorbed without questioning
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Why wasn’t there any political spending in states like Texas, NY or California in the 2012 presidential election?
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because they are almost guaranteed to go the same political party every election.
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What did the Supreme Court rule regarding corporate and union spending in Citizens United VS. FEC in 2010?
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the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions.
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Why is it logical that older Americans get their news from networks than cable while younger Americans typically get their news from cable?
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What makes up a text?
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a bounded communication system that can be analyzed. Best understood by distinguishing content from form Content consists of the meanings conveyed by TV. Form is the means used to express those meanings.
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multi-camera live studio production
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Essentially combines the \”liveness\” of radio with theatrical presentation of performances using a stage area and three cameras. Live studio cameras and microphones transmit signals to a control room where an audio mix and video switcher are used to create the sounds and specific pictures that appear in the program in a process known as live editing. News and sports rely on this mode of production although some scripted programs do as well as Saturday Night Live.
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single-camera telefilm production
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A telefilm is a filmed television production. This mode of production is modeled after the film industry’s system of production, offering control and flexibility. A single camera is used to shoot a scene from one angle after another, including a master shot of the scene from a distance. Shots are then edited together into a sequence and synchronized with sound. This mode remains one of the most common modes of production today, especially for prime time dramas.
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multi-camera telefilm studio production
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This mode of production combines the strengths of both multi-camera studio production and single-camera telefilm production. Programs are still performed on a stage, but instead of multiple camera and mic feeds going to a control room for live editing, they are recorded by cameras for editing and mixing following the performance. This mode of production is still commonly used by sitcoms.
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What is the focal length? How could that affect a shot?
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Focal length – The shorter the focal length, the greater optical power (ability to diverge and converge light) (Degree of magnification and depth of image)
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What are the three types of sounds?
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Vocal sounds that are present whenever people are talking. Music which can intersect with vocal sounds or may convey meaning apart from vocal sounds. Environmental sound which conveys the location and setting of a scene.
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How is the production prep work and shooting for live sports events compared to taped television sitcoms?
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sports is ver thorough, and on the fly. while sitcoms are well thought out and preplanned.
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What is agency? Why is it important in television narratives?
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Agency: the ability to undertake actions and make choices with narrative consequences
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What is the difference between a protagonist and an antagonist?
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Protagonist: the hero at the center of a narrative Antagonist: a villain or adversary to a protagonist
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Why is narrative comprehension important?
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When watching a narrative program, viewers are presented the plot via the elements of television style However, each viewer must connect the dots between events shown on-screen to construct the story within his or her mind, a process called narrative comprehension
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Why would advertisers care about narrative comprehension?
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for lengthy ad campaigns, and correct placement and timing of ads.
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What are the pros and cons of unrestricted narration and restricted narration?
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At one extreme is unrestricted narration, in which any story material can be presented without regard to what main characters know or experience At the other end of the spectrum is restricted narration, where all story information is filtered through the experiences of one or two main characters Restricted narration might also place limits on narrative space rather than characters
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Why would some shows use objective narration and not subjective narration?
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Most typically, television programs offer objective narration, presenting the external storyworld via what characters do and say Some techniques move toward more subjective narration, presenting story information from the perspective of a particular character
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Nonfiction programs use narrators much more frequently than fiction programs. Why does this make sense?
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because the viewer has no other source for explination
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What are the three different narrative times? Which is most likely most important to advertisers?
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Story time- how times passes within the storyworld Plot time- how time is presented on screen Screen time- the temporal framework used in telling and watching the story
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What are the elements of a three-act structure? Why is each act important?
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he first act begins with narrative equilibrium or peace which is then disrupted by a complicating action The longer second act prolongs and complicates the disruption The third act resolves the conflict and restores equilibrium However, the equilibrium is now a changed state from the state which existed prior to the complicating action
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What are genre conventions? Why are they critical in launching new television programming?
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Some of these conventions are tied to narrative, while others are rooted in the setup of a given genre. they are critical bacause they help the viewer quickly understand the new plot.
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What are the three types of television mediums? Give an example of a genre that could be tied to it.
answer

Made-for-television movies: stand-alone narratives which mimic the scope, length, and structure of films Miniseries: stand-alone narratives with multiple episodes Anthology series: each episode offers an independent storyworld Episodic series: present a consistent storyworld, but each episode is relatively independent Episodic Serial: employ narrative arcs, multi-episode plotlines that run across a series but eventually are resolved Serial narrative: continuing storylines traversing multiple episodes, with an ongoing diegesis that demands viewers to construct a storyworld using information gathered from their full history of viewing
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What is social construction of reality? How may television impact that?
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Social construction of reality/constructivism What we perceive as reality is created from the negotiation of the meaning and significance of people, places, and things. The social reality that we learn is most frequently the interpretation of dominant groups. The process through which we learn social reality is socialization, and media plays an increasingly important role in the socialization process.
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Where does ideology come from? Why is it relevant to television?
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Ideology refers to the set of dominant ideas at a particularly time in history. A cycle in which the members of society internalize and perpetuate it. Television specifically perpetuates it by circulating economic, political, and cultural realities in America as natural.
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What is false consciousness? How does agenda-setting compare to this?
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TV spreads deceptive notions of how the world works in order to favor the elite and delude the majority of society.
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What is hailing?
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Through the process of hailing, viewers become engaged with TV programs and accept them as speaking to them personally. This engagement must happen in order for ideological messages to be conveyed effectively.
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What is a cultural forum?
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The cultural forum perspective argues that programs can offer diverse visions and ideas, not simply an ideology.
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What are cultural rituals?
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In this perspective, TV shows are cultural rituals that allow viewers to work through social anxieties via the debate and conflict of narratives. A cultural ritual is one in which repeated formulas are relied on to relieve social anxieties.
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How were African Americans framed on television during the 1950s and 1960s? What was the influence of Amos and Andy?
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African Americans were primarily shown on news and documentary programs during the civil rights era. To the extent African Americans were on entertainment TV, it was mostly for ridicule.
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The 1970s brought about segregated presentation of African-American shows. What does that mean?
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The 1970s also saw the rise of the segregated presentation of an all-black world in programs such as Good Times, Sanford and Son, and The Jeffersons.
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What is 1980s African American television like?
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Much more diverse, normative, and realistic rather than stereotypical
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What are the two statistics discussed in class regarding Hispanic identity?
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16% of the population identify as Hispanic, but only 4% of characters are Hispanic
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What are the typical Hispanic-American roles on television
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Past representations stereotyped Hispanics as Mexican bandits or buffoons. Currently, most representations present Hispanics as poor and usually undocumented or as immigrants who refuse to assimilate to American culture.
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How are Native Americans depicted on television?
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Wise men, medicine wo/men, spiritual healers Drunks Savage and primitive
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What is a public service broadcast
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Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.
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What is the core responsibility of the FCC?
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make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex, rapid, efficient, Nation-wide, and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges.\” The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created \”for the purpose of the national defense\” and \”for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications.\”
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How long do today’s broadcast licenses last before broadcasters must apply for renewal?
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What is corporate liberalism?
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where the corporate elite become \”both the chief beneficiaries of and the chief lobbyists for the supposedly anti-business regulations\”.[1] The idea is that both owners of corporations as well as high up government officials came together to become the class of elites. The elite class then conspires (or, less maliciously: the system motivates the elite) to keep power away from the low or middle class.
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What is the Prime Time Access Rule?
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instituted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 to restrict the amount of network broadcast programming that a local television station which is owned and operated by, or affiliated with, a television network may air during \”prime time\”. It was repealed in 1996.
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What are the three main content categories that the FCC regulates?
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What is the fairness doctrine?
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ntroduced in 1949, that required the holders of broadcast licenses to both present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was, in the Commission’s view, honest, equitable and balanced. The FCC decided to eliminate the Doctrine in 1987, and in August 2011 the FCC formally removed the language that implemented the Doctrine.[1]
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Was Public television popular in the 1940s and 1950s?
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What is corporate underwriting?
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describe funding given by a company or organization for the operations of the service, in exchange for a mention of their product or service within the station’s programming.
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What happened in the 1990s to PBS regarding its veneration of charitable support?
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What is PEG access?
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is traditionally a form of non-commercial mass media where ordinary people can create content television programming which is narrowcast through cable TV specialty channels. Public-access television was created in the United States between 1969 and 1971 by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), under Chairman Dean Burch, based on pioneering work and advocacy of George Stoney, Red Burns (Alternate Media Center[1] and Sidney Dean (City Club of NY). Public-Access Television is often grouped with public, educational, and government access television channels, by the acronym PEG. PEG Channels are typically only available on cable television systems.
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What is the significance of Paper Tiger Television?
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Paper Tiger Television is an open media collective dedicated to raising media literacy and challenging corporate control over broadcast medium. Based in New York City, Paper Tiger was founded in 1981. Paper Tiger Television (PTTV) is a non-profit organization made up of volunteers and run as a collective in response to systems of hierarchical power.
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What is a news magazine? When did this become popular? Why do you think it became popular during the 1960s and 1970s? What was going on in society?
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Why did television production begin in NY rather than California?
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What is live editing?
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Live studio cameras and microphones transmit signals to a control room where an audio mix and video switcher are used to create the sounds and specific pictures that appear in the program in a process known as live editing.
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What was the chief rational behind the adoption of telefilm production?
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A telefilm is a filmed television production. This mode of production is modeled after the film industry’s system of production, offering control and flexibility.
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What is the establishing shot? Why is it useful?
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a master shot of the scene from a distance. Usefully to fully organize a scene
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Why is the extreme close-up used in television
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How can subjective narration be accomplished?
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Some techniques move toward more subjective narration, presenting story information from the perspective of a particular character This can be achieved through camera angles representing a character’s own vision or point-of-view shot Another common use of subjective narration offers mental subjectivity by giving viewers access to a character’s internal thoughts
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Why is story redundancy useful for television programmers?
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to aid viewers coming half way in with understanding the plot.
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Please describe the quiz show scandals of the late 1950s. Specifically, what did producers do behind the scenes?
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During the 1950s, it was found that many of the game shows were fixed. Telegenic contestants were kept in the game show longer. Some contestants were asked to lose.
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Where did most television genres come from?
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What kind of socio economic contrast was demonstrated in the show The Beverly Hillbillies?
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What is the difference between satire and parody?
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Well, parody is just a mimicry of an established concept, idea, or a person and satire is something spoken in humour without reproducing the subject directly. Satire can be said to be more subtle, which involves mockery but without mimicry. Parody on the other hand is just mimicry, only reflecting the actual subjects. Satire is stands for a social or political change. It depicts an anger or frustration trying to make the subject palatable. Satire can be termed as humour and anger combined together. Parody is really meant for mocking and it may or may not incite the society. Parody is just pure entertainment and nothing else. It does not have a direct influence on the society.
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How did animation alter its content and focus in the 1990s?
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What is a video news release? Why is it ethically questionable?
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What is an anthology drama? What is an example of it?
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What is a close-up? What is its function?
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What is the PICAN standard?
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Public Interest, Convenience, & Necessity
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How does Britain and Canada define \”public good\”? How is this different from the American broadcasting model’s definition of \”public good\”?
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What is a copyright? Why is this type of law critical for entertainment?
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How was the Corporation for Public Broadcasting started?
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What is pack journalism?
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In which reporters follow the leads of elite journalists on the beat—in this case, the campaign trail—as to what is the newsworthy story.Ultimately, it is the reporters and editors, not the candidates, who decide on the emphases of news coverage of the election and who can even set the agenda of issues dominating public attention
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According to Television and American Culture, what did The Cosby Show do for NBC?
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What is \”A plot, B plot and C plot\”? How do they work together within a story?
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What is a runner?
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the most junior members of a television crew. They fetch and carry, and do most production odd jobs.
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teaser
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an advertising or promotional device intended to arouse interest or curiosity especially in something to follow
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generic realism
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a set form and content norms that viewers can expect to be followed within a particular program, and thus feels \”real\” to a viewer.
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cultural categories
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The grouping of ideas and values that reflect the basic ways members of a society characterize the world.

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