Recent American Diplomacy

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
(1915) Schwiger submerged and set a course toward the Lusitania, the U-20 relased a torpedo, off tip of ireland. Was led by Capt. William Turner (his command let to its disaster). loss of 200 civilian american lives
Woodrow Wilson
President during WWI, promoted an open world unencumbered by imperialism, war, or revolution
Francisco “Pancho” Villa (war cross border mexican bandits)
General John J. Pershing
first United States officer service number. He led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, and was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II – – spoke of idea of US participating in international organization (didn’t call it league of nations) that would come out of peace making, would create settlements.
Triple Alliance
germ, austria-hungary,italy (military alliance until start of wwI in 1914)
Triple Entente
france, russia, great britain – allies of wwi
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German emperor (led german empire + prussia until 1918) he boasted to the US ambassador that there was “no longer any international law”.
William Jennings Bryan
President Wilson appointed him Secretary of State in 1913, but Wilson’s strong demands on Germany after the Lusitania was torpedoed in 1915 caused Bryan to resign in protest.
Edward M. House
diplomatic emissary to Europe/Special assistant/advisor to Pres. Woodrow Wilson, was pro-british/believed we would be at war w/ germany within a month after lusitania.
House-Grey Memorandum
The House-Grey Memorandum was a memorandum prepared by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson’s diplomatic emissary to Europe, “Colonel” Edward House, and the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward VanHusen Blunt Grey. The memorandum, drafted in memo form by Grey, was an invitation from the U.S. to Germany to participation in a U.S.-sponsored peace convention to end World War I. If Germany declined to attend, the U.S. would probably become militarily involved in the European conflict.
Gore-McLemore Resolution
Was a law to prohibit Americans from traveling on Armed merchant ships or ships with contraband
Sussex Pledge
Germany promised that submaries would not attack passenger or merchant ships w/o prior warning.
Zimmerman Telegram
The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note) was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was declined by Mexico, but angered Americans and led in part to a U.S. declaration of war in April.
National Defense Act
The National Defense Act of 1916 provided for an expanded army during peace and wartime, fourfold expansion of the National Guard, the creation of an Officers’ and an Enlisted Reserve Corps, plus the creation of a Reserve Officers’ Training Corps in colleges and universities.
Selective Service Act May 1917
The Act itself was drafted by then-Captain Hugh Johnson after the United States entered World War I by declaring war on Germany. It authorized the federal government to raise a national army numbering in the hundreds of thousands with which to fight a modern war. The Act was canceled with the end of the war on November, 1918.
Doughboy is an informal term for an American soldier, especially members of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in World War I.
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. more than 1 mil doughboys joined french/british units in the 6 week struggle.
Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points was a speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. People in Europe generally welcomed Wilson’s intervention, but his Allied colleagues (Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando) were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism.
was a French statesman, physician, and journalist. He served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920. For nearly the final year of World War I he led France, and was one of the major voices behind the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in the aftermath of the war.
David Lloyd George
was a British Liberal politician and statesman. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the head of a wartime coalition government between the years 1916-1922 and was the Leader of the Liberal Party from 1926-1931.
League of Nations
The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, and the precursor to the United Nations.The League’s primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge
was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and a noted historian from Massachusetts. considered to be one of the first Senate Majority leaders and was the first Senate Republican Leader, while serving concurrently as Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles, which the United States Senate never ratified.
Red Scare
he First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and left-wing political violence and social agitation aggravated national social and political tensions.
society was not a distinct political party, but a faction of an already established party, hence the official name of the faction was Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[4] The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.

Webb-Pomerene Act
Pertaining to economics and Anti-Trust legislation. Sponsored by Rep. Edwin Y. Webb (D) of North Carolina and Sen. Atlee Pomerene (D) of Ohio, Webb-Pomerene Act gave immunity to antitrust laws for companies that combined to operate the export trade that was essential to the war effort. The act was important because it granted exemptions from the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914.
Edge Act
The Edge Act is a 1919 amendment to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which allows National Banks to engage in international banking through federally chartered subsidiaries.
leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. he forged a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. FDR’s combination of optimism and activism contributed to reviving the national spirit. worked against germ and japan
Independent Internationalism
A foreign policy approach where a nation remains a world power and still pursues global policies it believes to be in its own interest, despite isolationist tendencies.
Corporatism was viewed by some as an appropriate strategy to prevent worker unrest, as well as a potentially and effective economic strategy. Franklin D. Roosevelt was one such proponent. While Roosevelt was not a fascist – he declared a loathing for authoritarianism – his liberal corporatism was part of his vision for a “third way”, reflected in the New Deal.
His conservativism, affable manner, and ‘make no enemies’ campaign strategy made Harding the compromise choice at the 1920 Republican National Convention. promised a return of the nation to “normalcy.” This “America first” campaign encouraged industrialization/economy independent of foreign influence. Harding departed from the progressive movement.Harding spurned the League of Nations, and signed a separate peace treaty with Germany and Austria, formally ending World War I. He also strongly promoted world Naval disarmament at the 1921-22 Washington Naval Conference, and urged U.S. participation in a proposed International Court.
was the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Hoover was a professional mining engineer and author. As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge, he promoted partnerships between government and business under the rubric “economic modernization”
Charles Evan Hughes
. He served as the 36th Governor of New York, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States , United States Secretary of State , and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States. He was the Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, losing to Woodrow Wilson

-confirmed nationalist/expansionist

Henry L. Stimson
was an American statesman, lawyer and soldier, and a member of the Republican Party. He served as Secretary of War on two occasions overseeing a military buildup prior to the First World War,
Cordell Hull
as an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. He is best-known as the longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during much of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the Father of the United Nations.
Sumner Wells
Benjamin Sumner Welles was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1937 to 1943, during FDR’s presidency.
1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
empowered the pres. to reduce tariffs by as much as 50 percent after negotiating agreements w/ other nations under the doctrine of the most favored nation.
War Debt Commission in 1922
An Act To create a commission authorized under certain conditions to refund or convert obligations of foreign Governments held by the United States of America, and for other purposes.
Dawes Plan
Charles G. Dawes negotiated the plan, whereby American investors (such as JP morgan co) loaned millions to Germany and Berlin accepted a reparations payment schedule.
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other countries. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as “an instrument of national policy” except in matters of self-defense. It made no provisions for sanctions. The pact was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series
A. Mitchell Palmer
When US troops were intervening in Bolshevik Russia, Wilsons attorney general was chasing suspected radicals at home. He was an architect of the Red Scare, believed the “blaze of revolution” was “eating its way into homes of American workmen..”
Nazi-Soviet Pact of August/molotov ribbentrip pact 1939
In the US, the nonaggression pact, which secretly divided Poland, reinforced charges that Stalin had become friends w/ Hitler. (when wwII erupted many Americans bamed soviets) Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union[1] and signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939.[2] It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
Adolf Hitler
German dictator, denounced democracy, introduced nazi party and took over germany/ goal was to destroy jewish race and create “erian race” and much of europe during his reign.
Maginot Line
The Maginot Line, named after French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defences, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in light of its experience in World War I, and in the run-up to World War II.
Munich Conference
The Munich Pact was an agreement permitting Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland. The Sudetenland were areas along Czech borders, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia.
Cairo Conference
November ’43, Churchill and Roosevelt met with Jiang and formally pledged the return, after war, of Taiwan, Manchuria and other areas “stolen” by Japan.
Dorothy Detzer
of WILPF, (womens intl league for peace and freedom), seeker of a world without war (exaple of women gravitating toward their own organizations).
Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy is a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy around 1900 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China. The open door policy stated that all European nations, and the United States, could trade with China.
Murken Incident/Manchurian Crisis
The Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident, was a staged event that was engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China known as Manchuria in 1931.
Stimson doctrine
The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force
Charles A. Lindbergh
Made aviation history when we flew nonstop from ny to paris, promoted US goodwill toward L.America. He became an outspoken isolationist opponent of US intervention in WWII, earned rep of conservationist.
Lytton Commission
The group spent six weeks in Manchuria in spring 1932 on a fact-finding mission, after meeting with government leaders in the Republic of China and in Japan.It was hoped that the report generated by the Commission would help defuse the growing hostilities between Japan and China and would thus help maintain peace and stability in the Far East.
Five Power Treaty
one of seven treaties negotiated at the Washington Conference on Limitation of Armaments .
– set a 10 year moratorium on the construction of capital ships-defined as battle ships and battle cruisers and limited the tonnage for aircraft carriers (established tonnage ratio for capital ships as well)
Nine power treaty
-endorsement of the open door for the preservation of chinas administrative integrity and equal trade opportunity.
Black Chamber Code breakers
ceiphered some 1600 secret japanese cables during the conference.
Icarus Factor
the waxwork of political webs that sustained disarmament at the beginning and later “melted” before the rising sun of the japanese expansion
Article 10
the article did not require member states to use force, but implied that they should. wilson stated the article meant the US had a moral and not legal obligation to used armed force.
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
was a battle between the Republic of China’s National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).
Rape of Nanjing
was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Good Neighbor Policy
was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a “good neighbor” and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of America in Latin America
Rafael Trujillo
ruled the Dominican Republic from 1930 until his assassination in 1961. He officially served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, otherwise ruling as an unelected military strongman. His 30 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era, is considered one of the bloodiest ever in the Americas, as well as a time of a classic personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance.
was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua between 1927 and 1933. He was labeled a bandit by the United States government, and his exploits made him a hero throughout much of Latin America, where he became a symbol of resistance to United States domination.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
The Tariff Act of 1930, otherwise known as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff was an act, sponsored by United States Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Bucarelli Agreements
The Treaty of Bucareli signed on 1923, was an agreement between countries of México and United States. for losses sustained by citizens or companies of the United States of America because of the Mexican Revolution.[1][2][3][4]

The treaty sought to channel the demands of U.S. citizens for alleged damage to their property caused by internal wars of the Mexican Revolution during the period between 1910 and 1921

Pan Americanism/Conference
Pan-Americanism is a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.

meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors, specifically Latin America.

The Atlantic Charter/ Conference
The Atlantic Charter was a statement agreed between Britain and the United States of America. It was intended as the blueprint for the postwar world after World War II, and turned out to be the foundation for many of the international agreements that currently shape the world. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of British and French possessions, and much more are derived from the Atlantic Charter.

It was drafted at the Atlantic Conference by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Lend-Lease Act
the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945. It was called An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty.
Washington Naval Conference
The Washington Naval Conference also called the Washington Arms Conference, was a military conference called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. 1921-22, Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history, a model for a successful disarmament movement.
Plattsburgh Training Camp
(Volunteers for getting ready for what may come)
-mayor of NY , Mitchell – went to Plattsburgh
-many greats went here.
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
the American pursuit of indpt. internationalism began here, 1921-22. Harding admin invited many counties to discuss naval arms limitation and competition in asia
Export Import Bank
A govtmental agency designed to provide loans to expand foreign trade
Wendell Willkie
-gained notaritity by suing the TBA
-potentially could beat Roosevelt, was pro-aid to England
-the republicans as a whole would have preferred an isolationist
-wilkie got votes – accepted nomination
(1940) Roosevelt & wilkie
-was the dark horse Republican Party nominee for the 1940 presidential election. A member of the liberal wing of the GOP, he crusaded against those domestic policies of the New Deal which he thought were inefficient and anti-business.
Joseph Grew
– ambassador 1941, came to US was under sec of state/ was a prof. diplomat/ in regards to japan – he urged trying to accommodate/negotiate w/ Japanese, hoping moderates would seize control from militants in japan
• -not isolationist
Four Power Treaty
abolished the anglo-japanese alliance of 1902 and simply obligated signatories to respect each others pacific territory.

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