What does the acronym ABA stand for?
Applied Behavior Analysis
Autism is characterized by
repetitive behavior patterns and impairment in social interactions and communication
What is ABC?
Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
What is EIBI?
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Definition of ABA?
Application of the principles of behavior to issues that are socially important to produce practical change
What is NOT a component to EIBI?
The treatment should have a short duration
What is the core principle of ABA?
Behavior is a function of its consequences
What operant is often referred to as vocal imitation?
What is a key feature of NET?
It is largely child-directed and performed in natural settings
Anita is hungry. She points to the crackers on the counter and her mom gives her a cracker. This is an example of?
Gabby sees a clown at the circus. She points and says, “Look, clown!” Her mom responds, “Yes, it’s a clown!” This is an example of?
Verbal and vocal behavior
What best describes verbal behavior?
Any behavior for which the consequence is mediated by the behavior of another person
Effective EIBI language programs focus on what?
Verbal behavioral function
What operant is referred to as conversational behavior?
What operant is referred to as labeling?
What three things are a behavioral teaching approach?
DTT, NET, and Fluency Based Instruction
What are the three categories of responses?
Incorrect, correct, no response
What is a discrete trial?
An instructional technique used in ABA that has a clear beginning and end
A motivating operation that increases the effectiveness of a stimulus to function as a reinforcer
Establishing Operation (EO)
A consequence that maintains or increases a response under similar circumstances
What are the three parts of a discrete trial?
The antecedent (Sd and/or EO), the response, and the consequence
A stimulus that indicates the availability of reinforcement for a given behavior is known as
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
What is general mastery criterion?
80-100% across 2 consecutive sessions in random rotation
What is a behavior chain?
A sequence of SDs and responses where each response in the sequence (except the last) produces the next SD
What is discrimination training?
The procedure for teaching the child to distinguish between two or more SDs
What are the three types of summary measures?
Rate, percentage, average
Probes differ from instructional procedures in that:
No consequence is provided
A therapist asks Patrick to pick up his toys, then starts a timer. He turns off the timer as soon as Patrick picks up the first toy. Which of the following is the therapist recording?
In whole interval recording, the target behavior is recorded as an occurrence if the target behavior:
Occurred throughout the entire interval
Under what circumstances would you not connect data points on a graph?
Whenever a large amount of time elapses between data points
Gemma’s classroom assistant taught her to complete each part of her math worksheets before submitting them and moving to another activity. Gemma’s classroom assistant worked hard to ensure that Gemma would complete many different kinds of worksheets, and would stay on task for a variety of different school staff. Three weeks after the intervention ended, Gemma is consistently submitting incomplete math worksheets and her ability to stay on-task until an activity is completed has decreased to near pre-intervention levels. Gemma’s classroom assistant failed to program for:
What are faded or removed during the systematic withdrawal of programmed interventions and procedures?
Antecedent stimuli (prompts or modifications to the natural environment & contrived reinforcers and schedules of reinforcement
In regards to the procedures when giving a diagnosis, a:
diagnosis is based on the direct observations and judgements of a trained professional
What is true regarding the ASD diagnosis within DSM-5?
Symptoms together must cause significant impairment in everyday functioning
An individual must have how many of the listed restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities in Criteria B?
In the past, an individual had to have ____ of the listed symptoms/behaviors present to receive a diagnosis of Autism; however, with the DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD, an individual must have all ____ symptoms present within Criteria A (social communication and social interaction) for a diagnosis of ASD.
In the new DSM-5 diagnosis, there are specifiers. What is NOT true regarding specifiers?
Severity specifiers indicate only the severity level of social communication
When gathering specific information about a client’s skill set, what is something the therapist/RBT will NOT be asked to do?
Implement standardized assessment in structured setting
According to Verbal Behavior, why is it important to teach language across each function (how it is used), especially for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Because individuals with ASD often times do not automatically generalize skills learned from one purpose to other similar conditions
True or false: a mand requires a vocal response.
The client is required to do the first step and then is prompted to complete remaining steps. What is this teaching procedure?
Activities that generally include sensorimotor activities, manipulative toys, and task completion type activities best describes what type of play?
What are some general guidelines for successfully teaching play?
Use the Premack Principle, have several ideas in mind for each play scenario, & incorporate choices to help motivate
Why is it helpful to develop a prompt hierarchy when teaching new play skills?
It helps guide the therapists/RBTs in fading back the level prompts consistently
What three things describe the main goal when teaching play skills?
Teach new play skills and activities, generalize learned play skills, & expand on existing play skills
How might a deficit in play skills look in an individual with ASD?
Limited interest in play items or engaging in inappropriate or restricted manner with play items
When teaching play skills to an individual with ASD, it is important for the therapist/RBT to remember:
Play may not be initially reinforcing to the client and it is important to have effective reinforcers available to teach these new skills.
Name three strategies for language promotion within play.
sabotage/hiding objects, stopping a situation in progress, & hoarding toys.
Caleb is learning to build a house using legos and toy blocks. What type of play does this best describe?
What does MSWO stand for?
Multiple Stimulus without Replacement
The difference between a Brief MSWO and MSWO is:
During the Brief MSWO, the items are only presented once.
What best describes a MSW preference assessment procedure?
Individual picks items from an array placed in front of him. Each time he selects an item it is returned back to the array and presented again.
According to research, what is the most reliable form of identifying potentially effective reinforcers?
Which preference assessment will the therapist/RBT most likely be conducting across the therapy sessions each time?
What is a paired choice preference assessment?
Items are presented two at a time until all items have been presented with every other item.
What does research say about the frequency of preference assessments?
They should be done frequently because preferences change over time and change when put into competition with other items.
When should the MSWO preference assessment procedure be used?
When the client has sufficient scanning and choice making skills
What is NOT an advantage of NET?
Provides increased response opportunities
What are three characteristics of NET?
Learners rarely sit at a table, typical training materials are rarely used, & the learner typically gets the reinforcer he is working with
The goal of NET is best described as:
Providing treatment activities that replicate the learner’s natural environment as much as possible to maximize the effectiveness of instruction
__________ involves giving the learner the exact response needed for the given task while __________ helps guide the learner to “figure out” the correct response.
Direct Prompting / Indirect Prompting
What are three strategies for running an effective NET session?
Deemphasize “correct” versus “incorrect” responses, present multiple examples to teach concepts and avoid memorization, & therapy should flow and not be segmented into treatment sections.
What best describes NET?
Teaching procedures within ABA that can be used to teach learners in their natural environment
What is NOT a main characteristic of NET?
Incorrect responding is followed with an informational “no”.
What do NET and DTT have in common?
Both use naturally occurring stimuli
NET strategies might be appropriate to implement when the learner:
is advancing or not advancing within the DTT curriculum
What are three reasons that NET may require more work on the therapist’s part?
Knowledge of the learner’s lessons and programs is required since immediate access to the program book may not be possible, data collection will likely need to occur during naturally occurring breaks, may require preplanning of contrived situations to evoke target skills.
Physically altering or exaggerating part of the stimuli to emphasize it to the learner best describes which stimulus prompt?
True or false: Visual graphic organizers are a method for transferring stimulus control.
Initially a textual word prompt is paired with the vocal instruction. Over time the text is made smaller and lighter until it is no longer there. This best describes __________?
A client continuously has trouble finding his homework folder in his messy backpack. The therapist/RBT asks, “why can’t you find your book?” and helps the client reenact finding his homework folder. Which best describes this type of prompt as discussed within this training?
A parent continuously tells a child he is unwanted and otherwise ignores the child. What form of abuse is this?
Who developed the guidelines for responsible conduct?
The term “motivating operations” (MO) is an umbrella term for what?
Establishing Operations (EO) and Abolishing Operations (AO)
When conducting an ABC analysis of behavior, what two kinds of antecedent event are important?
SD and MO
What is NOT a useful tactic for evoking an EO for mand behavior?
What term best describes, “an antecedent intervention that teaches an appropriate communicative behavior to replace problem behavior usually evoked by an MO?”
Manipulating __________ is particularly important during language training with clients.
Sarah wants to color. Her therapist gives her a coloring book and crayons, but removes her favorite color, pink. Later when Sarah is coloring she realizes she does not have her pink crayon, and asks her therapist for it. What strategy did the therapist use?
When using token economy systems, a client earns __________ reinforcers which can be exchanged for an __________ reward.
Why is a generalized conditioned reinforcer motivating?
Because it has been paired with a large variety of other reinforcing items.
What type of procedure is a token economy system?
Both an antecedent modification and consequence manipulation procedure.
The first step in setting up a token economy system is __________.
Selecting the target behavior to reinforce.
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