Random Latin Grammar

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Formation of Positive Degree Adverbs From 1/2 Declension Adjectives
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Add -ē to base of positive degree (ex. acerbē, pulchrē)
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Formation of Positive Degree Adverbs From 3 Declension Adjectives
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Add -iter to base of positive degree (if base ends in -nt-, just add -er) (ex. fortiter, celeriter)
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Formation of Comparative Degree of Adjectives
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Add -ior (m/f) or -ius (n) to base of the positive
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Formation of Superlative Degree of Adjectives
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Add -issimus/a/um to base of positive
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Formation of Comparative Degree of Adverbs
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Identical in form to Neuter Nominative Singular of Comparative Adjective (-ius to base of positive degree)
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Formation of Superlative Degree of Adverbs
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Add – Ä“ to base of superlative adjective (ex. fortissimÄ“, celerrimÄ“)
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Four Participles of Latin Verbs
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1) Present Active (verbING) 2) Perfect Passive (verbED or HAVING BEEN VERBED) 3) Future Active (ABOUT TO verb or GOING TO verb) 4) Future Passive (aka GERUNDIVE) –>PASSIVE PERIPHRASTIC
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Formation of Present Active Participle
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Add -ns (m/f/n) to the 2nd principal part stem + conjugation-characteristic vowel -genitive singular is -ntis -declined as 3rd declension adjective
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Formation of Perfect Passive Participle
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The -us, -a, -um 4th principal part of a verb -1/2 declension adjective -Perfect tense = TIME BEFORE MAIN VERB
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Formation of Future Active Participle
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Formed by adding -urus, -a, -um to base of the 4th principal part -1/2 declension adjective – -ur- is marker of this future active participle -Future tens = TIME AFTER MAIN VERB
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Formation of Future Passive Participle
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(aka Gerundive) Formed by adding -ndus, -a, -um to 2nd principal part stem + conjugation characteristic vowel -Declined as 1/2 declension adjective – -nd- is marker of this gerundive
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Formation of Passive Periphrastic
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Gerundive + form of “sum” -Gerundive functions as a predicate adjective – agrees with its subject in GNC (Case can only be nom. or acc.)
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Passive Periphrastic Translation
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-Conveys idea of necessity, obligation, or propriety action 1) if sum is in PRESENT tense – MUST BE verbED; HAS TO BE verbED, SHOULD BE verbED, OUGHT TO BE verbED 2) if sum is in PAST tense – MUST HAVE BEEN verbED, HAD TO BE verbED, SHOULD HAVE BEEN verbED 3) if sum is in FUTURE tense – WILL HAVE TO BE verbED
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Agent Used with Passive Periphrastic
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Dative of Agent (used WITHOUT a preposition)
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Debeo + infinitive
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Idea of Obligation or Propriety
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Formation of Ablative Absolute
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Ablatives of a Participle and a Noun//2 nouns//a noun and an adjective -Together form a substitute for subordinate clause -Noun in ablative absolute is not referred to in the main clause -Usually set off from rest of sentence by commas -Present Tense Participle = SAME TIME as Main Verb -Perfect Tense Participle = TIME BEFORE main verb
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Genitive of the Whole
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Genitive of a word indicating the whole of some thing or group is used after the word designating a part of that whole
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Genitive with the Verb egeo, egere, egui (“to need, lack, want”)
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Egeo does not take its obejct (the thing needed, lacked, or wanted) in the accusative, but in the genitive or ablative
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Dative of Agent
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With the Passive Periphrastic, the agent is expressed by the Dative, instead of usual ablative; NO Latin preposition is used
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Dative with Certain Adjectives
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Some adjectives often take a noun in dative case; typically these adjectives in English are followed by preposition “to” or “for” (the core sense of dative case) (ex. Ille videtur par esse deo. – That man seems equal to a god)
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Dative With Certain Verbs
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Some verbs just happen to take their objecs in the dative (i.e. “credo” – “to believe”) Importantly, also among these are 3 verbs that are often followed by indirect command – the IMP verbs (“impero, mando, persuado”) (ex. Tibi non credo. – I don’t believe you.)
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Accusative of Duration of Time
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To express “for how long a period of time” the action occurs; NO preposition; Translation – preposition “for” may sometimes be used or sometimes no preposition at all
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Ablative of Time When//Within Which
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NO preposition to specify time when or “within” which something is done; translated “in…”, “on…”, “at…”, “within…” or without an English preposition; answers question “When?”; noun in ablative is usually a time word
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Ablative of Separation
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NO preposition; ideas of freeing, lacking, or depriving to indicate a thing from which one is freed, deprived, etc.; also occurs with prepositions “a(b), de, or e(x)”; translated “from…”
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Ablative with Certain Verbs
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Some verbs take what would seem to be their English objects in the ablative case with NO preposition; among these is “egeo” – which can also take its apparent object in the genitive
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Ablative with Certain Verbs of Asking or Commanding
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Ablative following preposition a(b) is used to indicate the person asked or commanded with 3 verbs that often introduce an indirect command – the PPQ verbs (peto, postulo, quaero); translated without an English preposition (as if the ablative were a direct object)
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Ablative with Cardinal Numbers, Quidam, and Pauci
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Ablative used with e(x) or de after cardinal numbers, quidam (“a certain one, some”) and sometimes pauci,-ae,-a (“a few”) to indicate the whole of some thing or group of which some part is specified; translated “of…”
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Confero + Reflexive Pronoun
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Idiom “se + conferre” translated as “to go”
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Indirect Statement
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-Verbs of speaking, thinking, or feeling -Uses “that” -NO conjunction; instead uses infinitive phrase, with a subject accusative -Tense of infinitive = relative to main verb PRESENT infinitive = SAME TIME as main verb PERFECT infinitive = TIME BEFORE main verb FUTURE infinitive = TIME AFTER main verb
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Sequence of Tenses Rules
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If verb in main clause is primary tense –>verb in subordinate must be a “primary” tense of subjunctive If verb in main clause is secondary/historical tense –>verb in subordinate must be a “historical” tense of subjunctive
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Primary Main Verb in Sequence of Tenses
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Expresses action occurring in present or future -Present Indicative -Future Indicative -Imperative -Present Subjunctive
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Primary Subordinate Subjunctive in Sequence of Tenses
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-Present Subjunctive (action occurring AT THE SAME TIME AS or AFTER main verb) -Perfect Subjunctive (action occurring BEFORE main verb)
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Secondary/Historical Main Verb in Sequence of Tenses
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Expresses action occurring in the past -Imperfect Indicative -Perfect Indicative -Pluperfect Indicative
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Secondary/Historical Subordinate Subjunctive in Sequence of Tenses
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-Imperfect Subjunctive (action occurring AT THE SAME TIME AS or AFTER main verb) -Pluperfect Subjunctive (action occurring BEFORE main verb)
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Purpose Clauses
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-Subordinate Clause -Indicates goal, objective, or purpose that the action of main clause aims to achieve -Answers question “Why does/did the main action occur?”
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Formation of Purpose Clauses
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-Introduced by subordinating conjunction UT (positive); NE (negative) -Subjunctive verb (main verb primary–>present subjunctive) (main verb historical–>imperfect)
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Result Clauses
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-Subordinate Clause -Shows result or consequence of action of main verb -Answers question “As a result of the main clause, what happens/happened?”
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Formation of Result Clauses
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-Introduced by subordinating conjunction UT (positive) -Negative result–>clause contains negative word such as “non, nihil, nemo, numquam, or nullus” -Subjunctive verb (main verb primary–>present subjunctive) (main verb historical–>imperfect subjunctive)
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Indirect Commands
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-Subordinate Clause -Reports command or order indirectly Answers question “What was ordered, requested, advised, etc. in main clause?”
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Formation of Indirect Commands
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-Introduced by subordinating conjunction UT (positive) or NE (negative) -Subjunctive verb (main verb primary–>present subjunctive) (main verb historical–>imperfect subjunctive)
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Verbs of Indirect Commands//The Cases They Use
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IMP: -person commanded goes into DATIVE (impero, mando, persuado) MOHR: -person commanded goes into ACCUSATIVE (moneo, oro, hortor, rogo) PPQ: -person commanded goes into ABLATIVE WITH A(B) (peto, postulo, quaero)
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Indirect Questions
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-Subordinate clause -Reports question indirectly -Answers question “What was asked, wondered about, known, etc.”
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Formation of Indirect Questions
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-Introduced by question word -Subjunctive verb (ANY tense under sequence of tenses) (main verb primary–>PRESENT subjunctive (if subordinate action occurs at SAME TIME or AFTER main verb) or PERFECT subjunctive (if subordinate action occurs BEFORE action) (main verb historical–>IMPERFECT subjunctive (if subordinate action occurs at SAME TIME or AFTER main verb) or PLUPERFECT subjunctive (if subordinate action occurs at SAME TIME or AFTER main verb)
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Cum Clause
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-Indicates any of various circumstances under which the action of main clause occurs -Introduced by conjunction “cum” (“when”, “while”, “as”, “after”, “since”, “because”, “although”)
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Cum Temporal Clauses
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-Indicative mood NOT subjunctive
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Proviso Clauses
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-Subordinate clause -Indicates a provisional circumstance – a condition that must be satisfied for the action of the main clause to occur -Introduced by subordinating conjunction DUMMODO -Translated “provided that…” “so long as…” “but only if…” -Negative–>NE accompanies dummodo -Subjunctive verb
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Conditions
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-Introduced by “si” (positive) or “nisi” (negative) -Subjunctive verb but does NOT follow sequence of tenses–>mood//tense of verb in conditional clause are determined by type of condition intended -OPEN, IDEAL (SHOULD-WOULD) and UNREAL (CONTRARY TO FACT) (unreal come in 2 sub-types–>1)CONTRARY TO PRESENT FACT 2) CONTRARY TO PAST FACT)
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Open Conditions
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-Simple condition of fact in any time -No implication whatsoever about whether the condition will be, is, or was fulfilled -Whether the condition will be, is, or was satisfied is an “OPEN” question -Result stated in main clause DID IN FACT OCCUR -Verb in “if clause”–>indicative (any tense) -Verb in main clause–>indicative (any tense), an imperative, or independent subjunctive
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Ideal (Should-Would) Conditions
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-Describe “ideal” world -Doubtful whether condition stated in “If clause” will ever be fulfilled (in ideal world it might be) – If condition SHOULD be fulfilled, result stated in main clause would occur -Verb in both “si” or “nisi” clause AND main clause–>PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE -Translate “should” (if clause); “would” (main clause)
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Contrary-to-Present-Fact Conditions
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-Conjure a world contrary to known present fact -Condition stated in if clause unlikely to be fulfilled but in this contrary to fact world, if condition were fulfilled, the result stated in main clause WOULD occur -Verb in both “si” or “nisi” clause and main clause–>IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE -Translate if clause “if…were verbING” (active); “if…were being verbED” (passive) -Translate main clause “would verb” (active); “would be verbED” (passive)
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Contrary-to-Past-Fact Conditions
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-Conjure a world contrary to known past fact -Not only is condition stated in if clause unlikely to have been fulfilled, it is positively contrary to known past fact (it was not, and never would be fulfilled, if condition had been fulfilled, result stated in main clause WOULD HAVE occurred -Verb in both “si” or “nisi” clause and main clause–>PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE -Translate if clause “if…had verbED” (active); “if…had been verbED” (passive) -Translate main clause “would have verbED” (active); “would have been verbED” (passive)

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