Rader World History – Hinduism/Buddhism

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HINDUISM
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Monism
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belief that there is one essence or ultimate reality, which is within many forms (Brahman, in the form of Deites)
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Deites
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gods/goddesses 1) Brahma the creator (sets world in motion) 2) Vishnu the sustainer (keeps world in motion) 3) Shiva the destroyer (rejects dharma)
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Sruti
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scriptures divinely revealed to holy men, includes Vedas and Upanishads
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Smriti
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attributed to human creation, include stories or gods, civil code, mythology, royal families
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Vedas
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Rig Vedas – creation of universe Yajur Vedas – ceremonial Sama Vedas – chants Artharva Vedas – practical prayers
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Upanishads
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– ways to worship the gods with hearts and minds – basic understanding of the universe – how people should live
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Brahman
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includes human soul (atman), greater reality
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Samsara
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cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth
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Karma
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universal law of action, driving behavior based on individual dharma – positive and negative things happen in one’s life and past lives – how they have observed religious duty (dharma)
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Dharma
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duty or responsibility in life, can gain positive karma and minimize negative karma by following dharma
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Moksha
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elimination of negative kharma, atman released from samsara
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Maya
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illusion, one should not become too attached to the physical world and lose sight of the interconnectedness of existence (all is Brahman)
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Mandir
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temple, have one deity. Images of deites are dressed but not worshipped, the concept of Brahman is worshipped
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Puja
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simple prayers, meditation to bathing, and dressing of deites
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Household shrines
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Specific families determine deity of shrine, usually only one, but can have additional based on need
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Yoga
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pathway to union with Brahman РKarma yoga: charity or action union РJ̱ana yoga: acknowledging truth of reality РRaja yoga: meditation and mental focus РBhakti yoga: temple and home puja
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Diwali
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festival of lights, recognition of light within, exchange gifts
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Holi
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spring festival, youthful and joyous spirit
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Caste System
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1) Priests (Brahmans) 2) Warriors (Kshatriyas) 3) Merchants (Vaishyas) 4) Laborers (Shudras) 5) Untouchables
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BUDDHISM
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Birth
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by King and Queen in Warriors/Rulers caste (Shudras) in Northern India, Queen had a dream that white elephant stabbed her belly, Siddhartha could walk and talk at birth
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Naming Ceremony
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master of universe, if endured suffering he’d be spiritual leader. Dad gave him no suffering
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Leaving Wealth
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grew up, was rich with family, felt something missing. Saw suffering outside and a happy old guy. Decided to try and be like him
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Renunciant/Asceticism
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no possessions, extreme ascetic disciplinary practices to achieve enlightenment. Almost died, realized extremes are not the answer
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Enlightenment
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under Bodhi tree, confronted image of ego as an \”illusion\”, achieved Nirvana, shared what he learned
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The Three Marks of Existence
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Universal truths that apply to all being 1) Anatta: No personal or eternal soul, only consciousness 2) Anicca: everything is always changing 3) Dukkha: since nothing lasts forever, we suffer when they are gone
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The Four Noble Truths
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1) Life includes suffering 2) The cause of suffering is desire 3) In order to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire 4) The Eightfold path will help you eliminate suffering and desire
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The Eightfold Path
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Right understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
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Thervada \”The Way of the Elders\”
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orthodox, Tripitaka, monks and nuns
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Mahayana \”The Great Vehicle\”
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widespread and diverse, Bodhisattvas are \”enlightened beings\” who have achieved nirvana and help others, Buddha is greater
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Vajraraya \”The Diamond Vehicle\”
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Tibetan, Dalai Lama is reincarnation of Avalokiteshvara, who found nirvana. TENZIN GYATSO is 14th. Mystical traditions and magical practices.

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