Race 1: Rethinking Racism Flashcards

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Bonilla Silva
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-Reintroduced structural perspectives of race
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Ruth Benedict (Race and Racism) definition of racism
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\”The dogma that one ethnic groups is condemned by nature to congenital inferiority and another group is destined to congenital superiority\” **congenital: born with
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Pierre van den Berghe (r&r) definition of racism
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\”any set of beliefs that organic, genetically transmitted differences between human groups are intrinsically associated with the presence of certain socially relevant characteristics\” **genetics=social standing
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Richard Schaefer
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\”a doctrine of racial supremacy that one group is superior\”
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dictionary.com
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1. a belief or doctrine that inherent difference among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement 2. a policy, system of government, etc based upon or fostering such a doctrine. 3. discrimination
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Three aspects of popular framework
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1. Racism is defined as a set of ideas or beliefs 2. Those beliefs are regarded as having the potential to lead individuals to develop prejudice toward an entire group of people. 3. Prejudicial attitudes may induce people to real actions or discrimination against minorities.
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Archie Bunker Typology
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-Bonilla-Silva -\”classic\” racist beliefs using this popular typology -racially motivated behavior, whether or not the actors are conscious of it, is regarded as \”rational\” — based on different races’ different interests
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Racial Formation (Omi and Winant) Goal
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-identify the limitations of the previous frameworks used to analyze race and purpose an alternative structural theory built on institutionalist and racial formation perspectives
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Three alternative perspectives
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1. Marxist: CLASS and class struggle are essential to explaining social inequalities. Racism is one way capitalists divide the working class. So racism is a BY-PRODUCT of class tensions/dynamics. 2. Institutionalist: Racism is a combination of PREJUDICE and POWER that allows dominant group members to institutionalize their dominance at all societal levels. STRUCTURES produce WHITE advantage 3. Racial formation: Race is an organizing principle of social relationships that shapes IDENTITIES at the INDIVIDUAL and SMALL GROUP level, thereby affecting social life.
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Limitations
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1. Racism is excluded from foundation (Marxists say race is just part of class war) 2. Racism is viewed as psychological phenomena at individual level 3. Racism is viewed as static phenomena (what was racist in 1955 should be racist in 2011) 4. Racism is viewed as an overt behavior (overt attitudes are no longer accepted; people use Covert (hidden) means to convey racial antipathy and maintain racial inequality)**institutions are not racist and/or do not perpetuate racial inequality
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Racialized social system
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-a society wherein economic, political, social, and ideological levels/outcomes are structured by the placement of actors in racial categories -The characteristic of all radicalized social systems is the placement of people into racial categories involving some type of hierarchy that produces DEFINITIVE SOCIAL RELATIONS between race groups -The existence of a racial hierarchy throughout society that is seen at all levels in nearly all realms —Groups develop unique collective interests on the basis of this inequality
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5 elements of Structural Theory
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1. Racialized social systems allocate differential rewards to groups along racial lines. 2. Races are constituted according to the process of racialization. 3. The basis of racialization there develops an ideology that guides racial actors in society 4. Most struggles in a racialized social system have a racial component. 5. The process of racial contestation reveals the different objective interests of race groups in the radicalized system.
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Bonilla-Silva: Life as a Swim Meet
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-Swim times= social outcomes -After you go to a ton of swim meets, you’re told they weren’t fair. You were swimming upstream or downstream in a river, not a pool. -Are the outcomes of the meets just?
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Racist Beliefs
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-culturally sanctioned, rational responses to struggles over SCARCE RESOURCES. -sentiments which, regardless of intentions, DEFEND THE ADVANTAGES that Whites gain from the presence of Blacks in America -Pertains to many thins that may not seem \”Racial\” in nature
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Bonilla-Silva: The Status Quo
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Things that don’t seem to have racial implications but do: \”they justify arrangements that in effect, if not in intent, maintain the status quo and thereby keep Blacks in subordinate positions\”
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Bonilla-Silva: Racial Thinking
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1. Dynamic- changes with context; racist thinking of whites moves to accommodate new political and economic realities. 2. Theme- it is an ideological stance that removes the white person as a complicitor in the problem and at the same time places the responsibility for alleviating OPPRESSION with the oppressed
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Wellman’s New Racism
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-New definition of racism should include: sentiments that in their consequence, if not intent, support the status quo -Not be limited to hatred (i.e. emotion) — similar to bonilla-silva (advantage not just emotions) -Highlight beliefs that justify policies and institutional priorities that perpetuate racial inequality — does so in distinctively American terms

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